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76 terms

Final Exam

According to Piaget, accommodation occurs when individuals _____.
adjust their schemas to new information
What statement best describes the relationship between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?
Dissociative fugue cannot exist without dissociative amnesia.
Which of the following is a negative symptom of Schizophrenia?
Flat affect
Your roommate is acting very strangely. Although she has not slept much in the past few days, she says she is on top of the world. She has cleaned and re-cleaned her closets several times. She also took all her savings and invested it in a questionable financial venture. This period of non-stop activity has lasted for well over a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue she exhibited earlier this semester. Your roommate is exhibiting symptoms of _____.
bipolar disorder
Which of the following features of group therapy helps individuals who share a psychological disorder observe that others feel anguish and suffering as well?
Research into stereotype threat indicates that performance on a test may go down if:
you suggest to the test-takers that people like them typically struggle on this type of test
You are having dinner with your friend Sophia when she experiences a sudden onset of intense terror, without warning and with no specific cause. Sophia would most likely be diagnosed as suffering from _____.
panic disorder
The broaden-and-build model begins with _____.
the influence of positive emotions on cognitive processing
Lithium is an effective _____ drug
Results of cross-cultural and animal studies on the big five model of personality _____.
support the fundamental predictions of the big five model
Results of Milgram's experiment showed that participants were less likely to comply with the authority figure's requests when _____.
the victim was made to seem more human
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is an example of _____ test of personality
an empirically keyed
Darrin is a good piano player. When he is alone and bored his arousal is low and he often gets distracted and makes mistakes. When he is in a recital with strangers, he sometimes gets too nervous and aroused and also makes mistakes. His best performances are typically at home when family and friends are nearby, and his arousal level is moderate. The variations in Darrin's performance can be best explained by the _____.
Yerkes-Dodson law
Nicotine and rubella are examples of:
By the end of the _____ period, the heart begins to beat, the arms and legs become more differentiated, the face starts to form, and the intestinal tract appears in human beings.
One aspect of family therapy is the idea that a family member's symptoms are a function of the family relationships. If, for example, a teenage son is the scapegoat of the parents, which family therapy technique would be the most appropriate to use?
Which of the following characterizes pubertal change in adolescents?
The peak of pubertal change occurs at an average age of 11½ for girls and 13½ for boys.
Dr. Billings is a therapist who specializes in psychoanalysis. The types of techniques that she is likely to use would include _____.
free association, dream interpretation, transference, and interpreting the client's resistance to discussing painful memories
Which category will be a new addition in DSM-V?
Risk syndromes
The concept of _____ pertains to a psychological state, whereas _____ involves a physiological state.
drive / need
You are a personality researcher and want to continue after the tradition of Henry Murray. This means you will be more interested in _____.
the whole person rather than specific traits
Gordon Allport believed that healthy, well-adjusted individuals _____.
show a positive but objective sense of self and others, and have a sense of humor, common sense, and a unifying philosophy of life
According to Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory, emotion is determined by two factors: _____.
physiological arousal and cognitive labeling
What has behavioral genetic research found in the domain of autobiographical memory?
Although _____ did not believe that culture and education play important roles in children's cognitive development, _____ believed that cognitive development is very much an interpersonal process that happens in a cultural context.
According to Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory, emotion is determined by two factors: _____.
physiological arousal and cognitive labeling
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, formal operational thought is _____.
Which of the following forms of treatment relies on paraprofessionals?
Self-help groups
The Cannon-Bard theory predicts that after witnessing a shocking event, a person will _____.
experience physical and emotional reactions simultaneously
David Rosenhan sent eight fake patients to various hospitals, reporting hearing voices. Which of these best describes what happened to these eight people?
All were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and kept in the hospital from 3 to 52 days
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for _____.
You are feeling upset when your mother turns toward you and says "turn that frown upside down." You turn your frown into a smile and realize that you now feel happy. This experience can be best described by the _____.
facial feedback hypothesis
Which of the following statements about brain development is false?
Which of the following is a behavior therapy based on classical conditioning?
Aversive therapy
Mischel developed his CAPS theory in part through research in which domain?
Which of the following is true of neuroleptic drugs?
If an individual with schizophrenia stops taking neuroleptic drugs, the symptoms return.
Shawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he _____.
displays high self-efficacy
Regulation of which neurotransmitter is strongly implicated in schizophrenia?
Which statement best describes the relationship between neuroticism and emotion?
Neuroticism is related to feeling more negative emotion
Which of the following statements about instincts is false?
Instincts are learned behavioral responses.
Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of _____.
social loafing
You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old nephew, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your nephew has begun to develop _____.
object permanence
Justin enjoys watching pornography on the internet. He believes it is in everyone's best interests if he isolates himself from them. This behavior is not only jeopardizing his job, but it is also interfering with his relationships. Justin's girlfriend is upset that he spends too much time on the computer, and she is threatening to break up with him. Which of the following criteria for abnormality does Justin's behavior meet?
What is one of the challenges in identifying people with antisocial personality disorder?
They often are able to con even skilled mental health professionals
Freud considered _____ to be the primary motivating force of human behavior.
the unconscious
A psychologist who practices cognitive therapy might try to help a patient who suffers from a major depressive disorder by _____.
trying to get the patient to stop having irrational thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes
Jacqueline has been in relentless pursuit of thinness for the past six months. She has been starving herself to reach this goal. Jacqueline is exhibiting symptoms of _____.
anorexia nervosa
Which of the following statements about dissociative identity disorder is false?
Each personality has knowledge of the memories, behaviors, and relationships of the other personalities.
Marsha does a good job because she knows her performance will result in a bonus if she meets her goals. Georgia does a good job because she feels a sense of accomplishment when she meets her goals. Both women do the same kind of work. Who is most likely to perform better?
Systematic desensitization involves _____.
pairing a feared stimulus with a state of deep relaxation by being exposed to feared situations in a gradual hierarchical fashion
Alex regularly gives donations of blood in part because he hopes others do the same, so that blood is available for him if he ever needs a transfusion. His helping behavior is best explained by _____.
the concept of reciprocity
Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients' unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n) _____.
All of the following are symptoms of borderline personality disorder EXCEPT _____.
Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a D on an exam, she blames the instructor's ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia's behavior is an example of _____.
the self-serving bias
Setting goals, planning for the implementation of goals, and monitoring progress are all aspects of _____.
You laughed out loud a lot when you saw a movie in the theater; however, when you watch it later at home, you don't find it that funny. This example demonstrates the effects of _____.
According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which three fundamental needs?
Competence, autonomy, and relatedness
Which of the following statements about psychosurgery is false?
The effects of psychosurgery can be reversed with intensive therapy.
Marilyn is depressed a great deal of the time and seeks help from a doctor. She is diagnosed as having a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance. Marilyn is most likely being treated by someone who adheres to the _____ model of psychological disorders.
_____ involves a significant depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least 2 weeks.
Which perspective encourages people to understand themselves and to grow personally, with a clinical emphasis on self-healing capacities?
Place the following stages of the Kubler-Ross model in the correct order
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive an Elmo doll for Christmas. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of _____.
Sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking, and yawning are all examples of:
Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy _____.
clearly shows that psychotherapy works
_____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.
Cognitive dissonance
Kohlberg's model is based on the ________ perspective, wheras Carol Gilligan's is based on the ________ perspective.
Face validity refers to whether _____.
You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____.
he has an angry and volatile personality
Children of permissive parents tend to _____.
expect to get their own way and often show difficulties respecting others and controlling their behavior
Which of the following is true of the sympathetic nervous system?
It prepares the individual for fighting or running away.
Professor Rothbaum surveys students about their motivation for attending college. Which of the following responses is the best example of strong intrinsic motivation?
"I'm in college because I love learning. Education satisfies my curiosity and makes me feel like a confident well-informed person."
According to _____, as we age our cells become less capable of dividing.
cellular-clock theory
_____ are sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli. _____ are false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual's culture.
Hallucinations / Delusions
Sam is a participant in a study of moral development. In response to the Heinz moral dilemma story, Sam says that "Heinz shouldn't steal the drug because if he steals he will go to jail. Jail is a bad place so Heinz shouldn't take the risk of such harsh punishment." Sam appears to be operating at which of the following stages of moral development?
Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to make good choices. She accepts each individual as they are and as a person in the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing _____.