82 terms

PLTW-HBS Unit 4

Project Lead the Way, Human Body Systems part 2, Unit 4
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Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
Adduction
Movement toward the midline of the body
Articular Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces
Articulation
The action or manner in which the parts come together at a joint
Ball-and-socket-joint
An articulation (as the hip joint) in which the rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity of the other and admits movement in any direction
Cartilage
A usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures (as some joints, respiratory passages, and the external ear) is replaced by bone during ossification in the higher vertebrates
Circumduction
A movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively stable
Dorsiflexion
Bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (upper surface)
Extension
An unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
Flexion
A bending movement aruond a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow)that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
Goniometer
An instrument for measuring angles (as of a joint or the skull)
HInge Joint
Joint between bones (as at the elbow or knee) that permits motion in only one plane
Hyaline cartilage
Tranlucent bluish white cartilage consisting of cells embedded in an apparently homogenous matrix, present in joints and respiratory passages, and forming most of the fetal skeleton
Joint
The point of contact between elements of an animal skeleton whether movable or rigidly fixed together with the surrounding and supporting parts (as membranes, tendons, or ligaments)
Ligament
Dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
Plantar flexion
Bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)
Range of Motion
The range through which a joint can be moved
Rotation
Moving a bone around its own axis, with no other movement
Synovial cavity
The space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, filled with synovial fluid. Also called a joint cavity
Synovial fluid
Secretion of synovial membranes that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage
Synovial joint
A fully moveable joint in which the synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones
Tendon
A white fibrous cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Actin
A contractile protein that is part of the thin filaments in muscle fibers
Afferent neurons
Nerve cells that carry impulses towards the central nervous system
Cardiac muscle
Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinisic conduciton system and autonomic motor neurons
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A condition caused by compression ofth e median nerve in the carpal tunnel and characterized especially by weakness, pain, and distubrances of sensation in the hand and fingers
Contract
To shorten and thicken
Efferent neurons
Nerve cells that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system
Endomysium
The delicate connective tissue surrounding the individual muscular fibers within the smallest bundles
Epimysium
The external connective-tissue sheath of a muscle
Fascicle
A small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve or muscle fibers
Insertion
The attachment of a muscle tendon to a moveable bone or the end opposite the origin
Muscle
An organ composed of one of the three types of muscular tissue (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth), specialized for contraction to produce voluntary and involuntary movements of parts of the body
Myofibril
A threadlike structure, extending longitudinally through a muscle fiber (cell) consisting manily of thick filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin, troponin, and tropomyosin)
Myosin
The contractile protein that makes up the thick filaments of muscle fibers
Nerve
A cordlike bundle of neuronal axons and/or dendrites and associated connective tissue coursing together outside the central nervous system
Origin
The attachment of a muscle tendon to a stationary bone or the end opposite the insertion
Perimysium
The connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers
Plexus
Network of interlacing blood vessels or nerves
Rigor mortis
Temporary rigidity of muscles occurring after death
Sarcomere
Any of the repeating structural units of striated muscle fibrils
Skeletal muscle
An organ specialized for contraction, composed of striated muscle fibers (cells), supported by connective tissue, attached to bone by a tendon or aponeurosis, and stimulated by somatic motor neurons
Sliding filament mechanism
The explanation of how thick and thin filaments slide relative to one another during striated muscle contraction to decrease sarcomere length
Smooth muscle
A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons
Striation
Any of the alternate dark and light cross bands of a myofibril of striated muscle
Tropomyosin
A protein of muscle that forms a complex with troponin regulating the interaction of actin and myosin in muscular contraction
Troponin
A protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actina and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction
Aorta
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body
Arteriole
Any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries
Artery
Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
Arteriosclerosis
A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity
Artherosclerosis
A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters
Atrium
A chamber of the heart that recieves blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles
Blood pressure
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel
Capillary
Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules anf roming networks throughout the body
Cardiac muscle
Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons
Cardiac output
The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute
Circulation
The movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body
Coronary Artery
Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself
Heart rate
A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as a number of beats per minute
Peripheral artery disease
A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm
Perphiral vascular disease
Vascular disease affecting blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities
Pulmonary circulation
The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart throught the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in the systemic circulation
Pulse
A regularly recurrent wave of distension in arteries that results from the progress through an artery of blood injected into the arterial system at each contraction of teh ventricles of the heart
Smooth muscle
A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons
Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped from a ventricle of the heart in one beat
Systemic circulation
The passage of arterial blood from the left atrium of the heart throught the left ventricle, the systemic arteries, and the capillaries to the organs and tissues that recieve much of its oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide and the return of the carbon-dioxide carrying blood via the sytemic veins to enter the right atrium of the heart and to participate in the pulmonary circulation
Valve
A bodily structure (as the mitral valve) that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only
Varicose vein
An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein of the legs
Vein
Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart and have thinner walls than the arteries and often valves at intervals to prevent reflux of the blood which flows in a steady stream and is in most cases dark-colored due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin
Ventricle
A chamber of the heart which recieves blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries
Venule
Any of the minute veins connecting the capillaries with the larger systemic veins
Aerobic
Containg oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen
Anabolic steroids
Any of a group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone, are used medically especially to promote tissue growth, and are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve endurance
Anaerobic
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may by poisoned by it
Blood Doping
A technique for temporarily imporving athletic performance in which oxygen-carrying red blood cells previously withdrawn from an thlete are injected back just before an event
Cellular respiration
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
Creatine phosphate
A compound of creatine and phospohoric acid that is found especially in vertebrate muscle where it is an energy source for muscle contraction
Erythropoietin
A hormonal substance that is formed especially in the kidney and stimulates red blood cell formation
Glycogen
A highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of subunits; functions as compact store of glucose molecules in liver and muscle fibers
Lactic acid
An organic acid present in blood and muscle tissue as a product of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose and glycogen
Muscle fatique
inability of muscle to maintain its strength of contraction or tension; may be related to insufficient oxygen, depletion of glycogen, and/or lactic acid buildup
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