Posterior Triangle of the Neck
Terms in this set (71)
During birth, tearing of the fibers of the sternocleidomastoid can cause a _______________ that becomes a fibrotic mass that entraps a branch of the spinal accessory nerve & thereby denervates part of the muscle
What is the anterior border of the posterior triangle?
Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
What is the posterior border of the posterior triangle?
Anterior border of the trapezius muscle
What is the inferior border of the posterior triangle?
Middle third (1/3) of the clavicle
What is the superior border of the posterior triangle?
occipital bone posterior to the mastoid process
What is the roof of the posterior triangle?
Investing layer of cervical fascia
What is the floor of the posterior triangle?
Prevertebral layer of deep cervica fascia covering deep neck muscles
What are the borders of the subclavian triangle?
Inferior belly of omohyoid muscle
What are the muscles covered by the prevertebral fascia in the posterior triangle?
Omohyoid inferior belly
What muscle originates on the superior border of the scapula and inserts on the inferior border of the hyoid bone and has 2 bellies?
The tendon of the omohyoid muscle is made up of what fascia?
What is the innervation of the omohyoid muscle?
ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
What does the omohyoid muscle do?
Depress and stabilize hyoid bone
What muscles are attached to the 1st rib? What muscle is attached to 2nd rib? What is the function of these muscles?
Elevate the ribs
Where do the scalene muscles arise from? What is the innervation from?
From the tubercles of the cervical transverse processes, innervated by anterior rami C3-C7
What lies anterior to the anterior scalene muscle?
What lies posterior to the anterior scalene muscle?
What artery may arise from the 3rd part of the subclavian artery? Where else can this artery branch off?
Dorsal scapular artery, transverse cervical artery
What 2 arteries cross the base of the posterior triangle?
Transverse cervical and the suprascapular arteries
What nerve passes deep to or through the SCM to the posterior triangle and to innervate the SCM?
What nerve supplies skin over the anterior triangle?
Transverse cerivcal nerve
The lesser occipial nerve is from what rami?
What nerve supplies skin over the parotid gland and around the auricle?
Great auricular nerves
What nerves pierce the platysma to supply skin over clavicle, shoulder, and as far as rib 2?
CN 11 lies on the anterior surface of what muscle?
What nerve lies on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle? What rami contributes to this nerve?
Phrenic nerve, C5
The cervical plexus is formed by what anterior rami? COntributions?
C2-C4, contribution from C1
The superior root of ansa cervicais is formed by C1 and C2. Where does it loop?
Loops down within the carotid sheath from the hypoglossal nerve
The inferior root of ansa cervicalis is formed by what?
C2 and C3
Braches form the ansa cervicalis innervate the infrahyoid muscles. What are they?
Omohyoid, sternothyroid, sterohyoid
Phrenic nerve, supplies both motor and sensory to the what?
Diaphragm (C3, C4, C5)
Prevertebral muscular branches supply what muscles?
rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, longus colli, and longus capitis mm
When performing a cervical plexus nerve block, what do we insert the needle?
Along the posterior border of the SCM near the inferior third of the clavicle, also known as the nerve point
Congenital torticollis can precede birth or can appear shortly after birth. What is the most common type?
fibrous tissue that develops in the sternocleidomastoid muscle prior to birth
In the root of the neck, there is an upward projection of the pleural cavity and what parts of the lungs?
Cupula, and superior lobe of the lung on each side
What fascia is an extension of the endothoracic fascia and provides apical support for the pleural cavity in the root of the neck, and covers the sperior surface of the cervical pleura?
Sibson's fascia attaches laterally to the medial margin of the first ribe and above to where?
Transverse process of C7 vertebrae
Sibson's fascia receives muscle fibers superiorly from what muscles?
Where are the phrenic and vagus nerves in terms of the anterior scalene muscle?
Both btwn the subclavian artery and vein as they descend into the thoracic cavity
What does the rectus capitis anterior do?
What does the rectus capitis lateralis do?
Flex head laterally
What does the longus capitis do?
Flex the neck
What does the longus colli do?
flexes neck anteriorly, laterally, slight rotation to opposite side
The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk is where?
Anterior to longus colli and longus capitis, posterior to the common carotid artery
The cervical part of the sympathetic trunk is connected to spinal nerves via what?
Gray rami communicantes
What ganglion lies anterior to C1-2 vertebrae, contains mainly T1 sympathetic nerves and sends gray rami to C1-C4?
Superior cervical ganglia
What ganglia supplies C5/C6 spinal nerves and lies anterior to C6 vertebrae, heart as middle cardiac nerves, and loop of nerves and connects with inferior?
Middle cervical ganglion
What ganglion fuses to 1st thoracic as stellate, supplies C7, C8, vertebral artery and the heart as inferior cardiac nerves?
Inferior cervical ganglion
The inferior cervical & 1st thoracic ganglia are sometimes fused and called the what?
Th brachial plexus carries what fascia along into the axilla as axillary fascia?
The 1st part of the subclavian artery gives off what?
Vertebral artery, internal thoracic artery, thyrocervical trunk, costocervical trunk on left
The 2nd part of the subclavian artery is behindwhat muscle and gives of costocervical trunk?
Anterior scalene, costocervical trunk on right
What artery is the first branch of the subclavian artery, enters the eck, ascends and enters the foramen in the transverse process of vertebra C6 and continues up to C1?
After the vertebral artery goes up to the posterior arch of the atlas and passes where?
What artery arises from the first part medial to the anterior scalene muscle ?
What does the thyrocervical trunk give off?
Transverse cervical, inferior thyroid, and suprascapular branches
What artery gives off the ascending cervical artery which ascends on the anterior surface of the prevertebal muscles supplying the spinal cord?
Inferior thyroid artery
What trunk arises from the 1st part of the subclavian artery on the left and from the 2nd part on the right?
What does the costocervical trunk give off?
Deep cervical artery and the supremem intercostal artery
What veins are the primary veins for superficial drainage of the neck?
External and anterior jugular veins
What unites the anterior jugular veins?
Jugular venous arch
What vein begins by union of the posterior division of the retromandibular and the posterior auricular veins?
The external jugular vein descends on the superficial surface of the SCM within the superficial fascia and drains into what vein?
The external jugular vein terminates in the subclavian vein after piercing the investing layer of fascia in the lower part of what triangle?
What veins traverse the posterior triangle?
transverse cervical, suprascapular, and anterior & posterior jugular veins
What nodes pass to superficial cervical nodes along the external jugular vein?
Occipital and mastoid nodes
What drain and posses to the deep cervical nodes?
pre-auricular, parotid, submandibular, and submental nodes
What nodes form a chain along the internal jugular vein?
Deep cervical nodes
On the left side of the body, what trunks join the thoracic duct?
Jugular and subclavian trunks
On the right, the jugular and subclavian trunks join what?
Right lymphatic duct
Where does the thoracic duct enter?
Enters the root of the neck to the left of the esophagus
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