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The phase of matter in the Sun is


Which is closest to the temperature of the core of the Sun?

10 million K

The core of the Sun is

hotter and denser than the surface.

Based on its surface temperature of 5,800 K, what color are most of the photons that leave the Sun's surface?


Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding solar surface because

strong magnetic fields slow convection and prevent hot plasma from entering the region.

How does the Sun generate energy today?

nuclear fusion

How do human-built nuclear power plants on Earth generate energy?

nuclear fission

Hydrogen fusion in the Sun requires a temperature (in Kelvin) of

millions of degrees.

At the center of the Sun, fusion converts hydrogen into

helium, energy, and neutrinos.

How much mass does the Sun lose through nuclear fusion per second?

4 million tons

Suppose you put two protons near each other. Because of the electromagnetic force, the two protons will

repel each other.

Which is the strongest of the fundamental forces in the universe?

strong force

How do we know what goes on under the surface of the Sun?

A) We have X-ray images from satellites of the interior of the Sun.
B) Astronomers create mathematical models that use the laws of physics, the Sun's observed composition and mass, and computers to predict internal conditions.
C) We have sent probes below the surface of the Sun.
D) By measuring Doppler shifts, we observe vibrations of the Sun's surface that are created deep within the Sun.
E) both B and D

Studies of sunquakes, or helioseismology, have revealed that

our mathematical models of the solar interior are fairly accurate.

Which of the following statements about neutrinos is not true?

The mass of a neutrino is 30 percent of the mass of an electron.

What seems to be the solution to the solar neutrino problem?

The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into other types of neutrinos that we could not detect until now.

The light radiated from the Sun's surface reaches Earth in about 8 minutes, but the energy of that light was released by fusion in the solar core

hundreds of thousands of years ago.

What are coronal holes?

areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles to escape the Sun, becoming the solar wind

Which of the following statements about the sunspot cycle is not true?

The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years

What processes are involved in the sunspot cycle?

the winding of magnetic field lines due to variations in the Sun's rotation

What observations characterize solar maximum?

We see many sunspots on the surface of the Sun.

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