Upgrade to remove ads
A&P 1 Prof Vala
Terms in this set (155)
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
What are the 3 muscular tissues
Body temp regulation
Protects body from external environment
Detects cutaneous sensations
Synthesizes vitamin D.
What are the 6 functions of the Integumentary System
Bone to Bone
Muscle to Bone
Most abundant tissue in the body. Provides framework and support.
Connective Tissue is...
Dense Regular, Dense Irregular, and Elastic
3 Types of Dense CT
Areolar, Reticular, and Adipose
3 Types of Loose CT
All fibers in one direction. Tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis (smooth and sheet like form)
Dense Regular CT
Uses no energy.
Moving something down the concentration gradient
(Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis)
Skin, hair, oil and sweat glands, nails and sensory receptors
Integumentary System includes...
Form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into a cell by engulfing them. (pseudo pods)
Form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules out of the cell
Food (glucose, fatty acids) and oxygen
What 2 things are needed to keep producing ATP?
DO NOT have mitochondria. Receive energy through aerobic respiration (glycolysis)
Study of body parts
Study of function of body parts
Moves something across concentration gradient
Almost always requires "pump" (proteins)
Active and Passive
Cell transport mechanisms
Over 90% of the body's cartilage
Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibro
3 Types of Cartilage
Nose and Ear
Cartilage. Does not support blood vessel growth
Periosteum -outer most tissue layer of bone
Pericardium- outer most tissue layer of heart
Perichondrium- outer most tissue layer of cartilage
Irregular Dense CT
Lung, Arteries, Skin, Vocal Cords
Dense Elastic CT
Composed of Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Actin
What is the thin filament composed of
ATP, Calcium, and Ach
What 3 things are needed in order for a muscle to contract
Functional Contractile Unit of Muscle
Cell membrane of skeletal muscle cell
Cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cell
"Phagocytosis"- eats stuff
Strong & Fast
Ach, Epinephrine, Nor-Epinephrine
Cardiac Muscular Tissue
Collagen, Reticular, and Elastic
Protein Fibers (CT)
Protein Fibers and Ground Substances
C T Matrix consists of...
Hyluronic Acid (most common)
Heparan Sulfate (basement membrane)
Chondroitin Sulfate (cartilage)
Hydroxy Apetite (bones)
Slow & Weak
Ach, Epinephrine, Nor-Epinephrine, Histamines
Smooth Muscular Tissue
Strong & Fast
No GAP Junction
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
4 Classifications of Molecule
Group of similar cells that act as a functional unit
Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen
Principle Types of Bonds
4 Organic Molecules
(Jellyfish) Top Part is Hydraphilic, Bottom Part is Hydrophobic
Anion- Loses an e- (positively charged)
Cation- Gains an e- (negatively charged)
Controls movement of substances into and out of cell
Long cell projection, whip-like motion moves sperm (tail)
Long thin strands within nucleus
Each strand composed of one DNA molecule and associated proteins
Form mitotic spindle- needed to form cillia and flagella
3 kinds of protein filaments
Maintain cell shape and involved in cell and organelle movement
Secrete substances outside of cell by exocytosis
Produce hydrogen peroxide. Detoxifies harmful substances
Site of protein synthesis
Makes ATP through aerobic respiration
Pack, ship, move molecules
Folds of the plasma membrane that increase the surface area of the cell to increase absorption or secretion
Abundant, hair-like cell projections that move fluids and particles along the cell surface
Area of the cell between plasma membrane and nucleus. Includes cytosol abd organelles.
Enzymes digest and recycle worn out organelles and substances entering the cell, can digest cell.
Fatty acid steriod synthesis. Detoxifies toxic substances
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Processes/transports proteins made at attached ribosomes. Synthesizes phospholipids.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Receives and modifies proteins from RER -> Sorts and transports them
Closer to inner body (used for upper part of specific object)
Further from the inner body (used for lower part of specific object)
Towards Head (cranial)
Towards Bottom (caudal)
Close to a "mid-line" (reference point)
Away from a "mid-line" (reference point)
Deeper than surface/tissue
Close to skin/surface
Moving closer to mid-line
Moving away from mid-line
Decrease the angle of 2 bones
Increase the angle of bones
Palm facing down (only forearms)
Palm facing up (forearms only)
Moving in towards body
Ex- Take foot and move towards inside of body
Moving out from body
Ex- Take foot and move outside away from body
Sweat gland located in deep dermis and upper subcutaneous layer
Prominent in armpit, groin, bearded regions
Appears milky and yellow, odorless until it interacts with bacteria on surface of skin
On set - Puberty
Has nothing to do with thermal regulation
Apocrine Sweat Gland
Contains both thin and thick filament
A Band (sarcomere)
Contains only thin filament
Contains only thick filament
In the Epimysium
Where are fascicles located?
Bundle of muscle fibers.
What is a fascicle?
Myocyte (muscle cell)
What type of cell is located in a fascicle?
What is a myocyte composed of?
What connective tissue surrounds a fascicle?
What connective tissue is inside of the Perimysium which surrounds each myocyte?
ATPase is an enzyme found on the head of the myosin protein. It hydrolizes ATP -> ADP, releasing energy.
What is ATPase and where is it found on the thick filament?
What does the calcium connect to on the thin filament?
What protein does the head of the myosin filament connect to during muscle contraction?
Enlarged areas of sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding t-tubles. It stores calcium.
Describe the termina cistern. What does it store?
Dense Bodies connected by cytoskeleton proteins. Myosin light chain react with Actin filaments. Calmodulin is the calcium binding site, which is found reacting with the actin filaments.
Draw and label the smooth muscle composition (actual terms, not aponeurosis)
Calcium Homeostasis (most important)
Blood cell production
Portal of entry for medicine
Bone Functions (7)
Osteogenic (stem cells)
Responsible for bone formation (3)
Macrophage. Chews up bone.
"Free" calcium- 50% (in blood, precisely monitored)
50% in bone- calcium and proteins
2 Types of calcium in in body
Stimulates osteo-clast (needs calcium)
Excretes phosphorus from kidney
Activation of Vit D (from kidney)
Para thyroid hormone
Vit D absorbs calcium from kidney and GIT
Why does the Para Thyroid hormone activate Vit D?
Draw and label the "Long Bone" structure.
Histology of the Bone is referred to as
What cavity is located inside the bone?
Red bone marrow (produces blood)
Yellow bone marrow (produces energy)
What does the Marrow cavity consist of?
Outer most layer of the bone
What is the periosteum?
(only found in thick layers of skin, ex. foot)
5 Layers to the epidermis (inner to outer layer)
Death of a cell
What does "Apoptosis" mean and what layer does it start?
Most predominant cell, found in 90% of the epidermis. Produces Keratin, a protein which protects skin from abrasions, heat, chemicals, foreign materials, etc.
Endothelium- blood vessels, heart chambers, lymphatic vessels
Mesothelium- Body cavities
Found in small intestine
Glands and thyroids
"transitional" found in urinary tract
Upper and lower respiratory
Pseudo-Stratified Cilliated Collumnar
Skin, esophagus, oral cavity, vagina
Pseudo-Stratified Cilliated Collumnar
What are the 6 types of Epithelial Tissue
Ex- Asthma, Allergies
Acetyl Choline Esterase
What protein is used to "sweep away" excess Ach?
What does Ach stand for?
What is another word for "axillae"?
Found in the compact portion of bone. Composed of Lacunas, osteocytes, and canalculi.
What is an "osteon" composed of and where is it found?
Mature osteoblast. Bone building. Formed when osteoblast is embedded in its matrix (hydroxy apetite)
What is an osetocyte?
The "empty spots in the bone". Contain the osteocyte.
What is a lacuna?
The "communication tunnels" created by the osteocytes.
What is the canalculi?
Spongy part of the bone (inner layer)
What is the trabaculi?
Produces Vit D (calcium homeostasis)
Temperature Regulation (sweating, chills)
Excretion (water regulation)
Clinical Uses: Absorption for medicine, Skin grafts
Functions of the Skin (9)
What are the different regions of the dermis
Between the Stratum Granulosum and Stratum Corneum
If the Stratum Lucindum is present in the epidermis, where is it located?
In between the Stratum Granulosum and Stratum Spinosum
Where can you find melanocytes?
Long, slender projections that extend between the keratinocytes and transfer melanin granules to them
What is a melanocyte?
A pigment produced by melanocytes that are yellow/red/brown/black and contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging UV rays.
What is Melanin
Once inside the keratinocytes, the melanin creates a protective shield to prevent damage to vulnerable DNA from UV rays.
What is the function of melanin?
Arise from red bone marrow and migrate to epidermis. Destroy invading microbes.
"Tactile Epithelial Cells"
Located in deepest layer of epidermis, connect to "tactile disc/merkel disc".
Detect touch sensations.
Produced by Keratinocytes.
Create water-repellant sealant on skin to regulate water entry and inhibits entry of foreign materials.
Contains 5 Layers
Responsible for sensory information:
Contains 2 regions
Various dense, irregular connective tissue:
Not considered "part" of the skin
Loose connective tissues composed of adipose cells
Which epidermal layer includes stem cells taht continually undergo cell division?
Smooth muscle attached to hair follicles. Contractions of this muscle cause goosebumps.
What is the Arrector Pilli?
Oil glands located in dermis
Prevents hair from drying out
Inhibit growth of some bacteria
Activated during Puberty
Located in the ear, subcutaneous layer
Secretes "cerumen" (waxy material)
Impedes entrance of foreign bodies, microbes into external ear
Short, fine pale hairs
Abundant during childhood
Course, heavily pigmented hair
During puberty, replaces vellus hairs in axillae, pubic regions, facial hair (males), chest (males)
Mostly in deep dermis
Throughout most regions of body: forehead, palms, soles
Secretes perspiration consisting of water, urea, lactic acid, ammonia, ions
Regulates body temp, waste removal
Eccrine Sweat Gland
1/5 of the top layer of dermis
Contains "papillae"-nipple like structures
Keratinized stratified squamous cells
The epidermis consists of....(in terms of epithelial tissue)
Deepest layer of the Epidermis
Cell division occurs here (vulnerable DNA)
Composed of single row of cuboidal or collumnar keratinocytes
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Anatomy & Physiology 1
Physio H Fall Final Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology 1 with lab Midterm
Anatomy and Physiology Mid-Term Vocabulary (Chapte…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Cardiac part 2
Cardiac Part 1