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78 terms

Vertebrate Zoology Test 2

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Like begets like, In any population there will be some variation that is inheritable, Not all individuals reproduce, The individuals that reproduce best are determined by their variations
The four basic ideas of modern evolutionary theory
Recombination, gene flow, mutation
The three main sources of variation
Recombination
The shuffling of the genetic material that occurs during meiosis
Recombination
The most important source of variation in most populations
Mutation
A change in the genetic make up of one cell
Point mutation
A change in the chemistry of the DNA molecule
Point mutation, change in chromosome number, change in chromosome structure
The three types of mutation
Trisomy
Having three of the same chromosome
Gene flow
The introduction of new genetic material into a population when new individuals move into a population
Evolution
A long-term change in one or more characteristics of a population over successive generations
Barrier
Anything (usually environmental factors) that cuts off gene flow
Ecotypes
If two populations become different over time and become recognizably different from each other, then we can say that they have developed into different ___________ .
Bergmann's, Allen's, Gloger's
Three rules that pertain to conspecific endotherms
Bergmann's Rule
Conspecifics occurring in a colder climate tend to have a larger body size than that of a warmer climate
Allen's Rule
Conspecifics occuring in colder climates tend to have smaller extremities
Gloger's Rule
Endotherms in colder climates will have darker colored fur/feathers
Speciation
The development of a new species
Divergence
A process in which two populations of a common ancestry become different from each other
Convergence
A type of evolution that occurs in unrelated forms (not having common ancestry) where the groups become more and more similar to each other
Ecological homologues
Unrelated organisms that have similar roles in nature because of convergence
Niche
An animal's role in nature
Gradualism and punctuated equilibrium
The two basic ways that evolution occurs
Gradualism
A type of evolution that occurs gradually over time
Punctuated equilibrium
Organisms exist relatively unchanged, but then undergo major changes very rapidly. Usually follows a cataclysmic event that necessitates rapid change
Microevolution and macroevolution
The two types of evolution
Microevolution
Very small evolutionary change (changes within a species)
Macroevolution
Large evolutionary change (the development of new taxa)
Group Agnatha and group Gnathostomata
The two major groups of subphylum Vertebrata
Cambrian
The Agnathans appeared during the _____ period
Agnathans
First vertebrates
Jaws and lateral fins
Distinct features of Gnathostomes
100
Currently there are only _____ extant species of Agnathans
Class Cyclostomata
The only extant class of Agnathans
Keep notochord, never develop a vertebral column, no lateral fins
Disadvantages of the Agnathans
Group Gnathostomata
Group of "true fishes". They have mouths with jaws
Series Pisces and series Tetrapoda
Two series of group Gnathostomata
Class Chondrichthyes and class Osteichthyes
The two classes within series Pisces
Class Chondrichthyes
The class known as the "cartilaginous fish"
Class Osteichthyes
The class known as the "bony fish"
500
Class Chondrichthyes appeared (#) million years ago
600
There are (#) extant species in class Chondrichthyes
400
Class Osteichthyes appeared (#) million years ago
Class Osteichthyes
This class makes up the majority of "fish" species
Class Amphibia, class Reptilia, class Mammalia
The three classes within series Tetrapoda
marine, boundaries
The vast majority of fishes are _____ due to there being fewer __________ in the ocean.
caudal fin
Used by fish as the main source of propelling through the water
do not have
Agnathans (do have / do not have) scales
Poikilotherm
An animal in which the body temperature varies with the environmental temperature
Homeotherm
An animal that is able to maintain/control a relatively constant body temperature
Endotherm
An animal whose main source of heat is internal
Ectotherm
An animal whose main source of heat is external
Homologous structures
Structures that have similar origin in the embryo
Analogous structures
Structures that have similar function
Class Cyclostomata
Which class keeps their notochord for their entire lives?
Pisces
Some of this series keep their notochord, but most develop a skeletal system
Cranium
The part of the skull associated with the brain
incomplete
Cyclostomes have a(n) (incomplete / complete ) cranium
complete
Pisces have a(n) (incomplete / complete) cranium
Group Gnathostomata
A vertebral column is present only in which group?
Metamerism
A condition in which as the body develops, it consists of repetitious segments
simple
The muscular system of fish is relatively ______
myomeres
The muscular system of fish consists primarily of _______
specialization
True fishes have more ______ in their muscles than cyclostomes
46
How many chromosomes are there in a normal human?
22
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in normal male humans?
23
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in normal female humans?
Chimpanzee
Which animal is our closest relative?
48
How many chromosomes do chimpanzees have?
Subspecies
Ecotypes that have become elevated to the level of a taxon.
Neandertal
A fossilized human-like species that is thought to be in the sample species as humans, but it is different enough to be in a different subspecies
Homo sapiens neandertalensis
The subspecies for the Neandertal
Homo sapiens sapiens
The subspecies for humans
surface area
The vertebral column is an advantage because it adds a large _______ ____ to which muscles can attach.
ectotherms
All poikilotherms are (endotherms/ectotherms).
Homeotherms
(Homeotherms/Poikilotherms) consist of both endotherms and ectotherms.
external
Homeothermy can be achieved internally and by through _______ behaviors.
analogous; both
Most fish scales are (analogous/homologous/both) to tetrapod scales. The others are (analogous/homologous/both).
Group Gnathostomata
What is the only group that has a vertebral column?