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PSY323 Exam 1
Terms in this set (34)
What are the goals of counseling/helping?
Goal one: Life-enhancing outcomes for the client
Help clients manage their problems in living more effectively and develop unused or underused resources and opportunities more fully at the service of life-enhancing outcomes.
Goal Two: Learning how to help oneself.
Help clients become mo better at helping themselves in their everyday lives.
Goal Three: Developing a prevention mentality
Help Clients develop an action-oriented prevention mentality in their lives.
Why do people seek out counseling services?
Clients come for help because they have crises, troubles, doubts, difficulties, frustrations, or concerns
Some clients come not because they are full of problems, but because they are not as effective as they would like to be. They have resources they are not using or opportunities they are not developing.
What are the ingredients of successful helping?
Life-enhancing outcomes clients seek
The client and the contextual factors of the client's life
The person of the therapist
The helping relationship
The therapeutic dialogue between client and helper
Two-way feedback between the client and helper
The model or method of treatment standard problem management process as a human universal
Decision making as a human universal
The beliefs, values, norms, ethics, and morality that drive human behavior
What is the problem management framework?
It drives human nature (see figure)
What is going on?
Helping clients spell out his or her current behavior
What does a better future look like?
Helping clients paint their preferred picture
How do I get there?
Plan outlines the actions clients need to take to create a better future. This is the way forward.
How do I make it all happen?
Indicates the broad and specific actions clients must take to produce the changes they want. This is the ongoing challenge of implementation
How is the term Shadow Side used in the text?
All those things that often adversely and sometimes constructively affect the helping relationship, process, and outcomes, in substantive ways but that are not identified and explored by helper or client or even the profession itself.
What does it mean to have a working alliance, and the principles to one?
"The quality and strength of the collaborative relationship between client and therapist"
1. Active: clients see themselves as "playing a significant role, or at least making a difference, as to whether the work moves forward or not"
2. Mutual type: acknowledges her or his role in the work of therapy and positive change but also views (and in some cases explicitly expects) the therapist to play an equally active role
3. Dependent collaborative: collaboration refers to change-inducing or otherwise beneficial therapist interventions
The working alliance is a forum for relearning and model of flexibility within a relationship
The three ways in which you get off to a good start?
1. Positive expectancies
-attentive, honest, flexible
-provide a framework
-sharing the problem-management focus
-specific way of handling symptoms
2. Role of a proactive and committed client
-fills in the details
-knows what to expect
-understanding of what the relationship can be
3. Goal formation
-what is the client hoping to get out of the work
How can a helper show disrespect vs respect?
Respect! Positive regard for your client
Do NO harm
Do NOT rush to judgement
Competent and committed
Being 'for' the client
Belief that clients want the best life
How can empathy help you understand a client?
Allows for us to step outside of ourself and put on hold one's perspective in order to understand one another
What is the cultural framework of a client?
cultural framework is ADDRESSING. What cultural influences does the client have
now what ADDRESSING stands for, and how is a helper competent in this area?
D- disability (physical)
D- disability (mental/developmental)
E- ethnicity or race
S- socioeconomic status
S- sexual orientation
I- indigenous heritage
N- national origin
We can support empowerment and self responsibility by using a "working charter with
our helper? What does this mean?
A working charter is what helps both parties in the helping relationship understand what their responsibilities are.
This should include
-The nature and goals of the helping process
-An overview of the helping approach together with some idea of the techniques to be used
-A sense of the flexibility built into the process
-How this process will help clients achieve their goals
-Relevant information about yourself and your background
-How the relationship is to be structured and the kinds of responsibilities you will both have
-The values that will drive the helping process
-Procedural issues: the nuts and bolts of the helping process such as where sessions will be held and how long they will last
How should a helper use non verbal skills and communication?
Have an empathetic presence; be aware but not preoccupied
What is SOLER?
S- squarely, face the client
O- open, have an open posture
L- lean, lean towards
E- eye, maintain good eye contact
R- relaxed, have natural behaviors
Know the forms of poor listening.
- partial listening-
-tape recorder; must be able to tweak what you say back slightly; helpee must be able to progress
How does a helper listen using empathy, what should you be tuning into?
-experience: what happens to them (listen for themes)
-behaviors: what do they do and choose not to do
-thoughts: what thoughts go through their heads
-clients point of view
-intentions, proposal, plan
What does it take to have emotional intelligence?
- Emotions in oneself and others
- to facilitate thoughts and understandings
- understanding emotional meaning
- engaging one's emotions effectively
How can you apply listening to the Key
Ingredients of successful therapy?
- listen for key messages and feelings
- hear the spin or slant
- what is missing
- listen to oneself, what are you thinking?
What is the shadow side of listening?
- filtered listening
- evaluative listening
- fact centered
Know what makes up an empathic relationship.
Arthur Clarks, three kinds of empathy
-to identify with a client through intuitive reactions; to be 'like' the clients
-a counselor learns from various sources
- able to get 'inside' the client and understand what they are thinking/ feeling without judgements
What are the 3 dimensions of responding?
- Perceptiveness: being able to pick up on what the client is thinking feeling accurately
- know how: how you then address what is known at the appropriate time
- assertiveness: to address issues with clients they may overlook, how to share your "hunch"
Know the basic formula of empathy.
You feel ____ because _____.
How does a helper respond accurately (what would it sound like)
Use the right family of emotions
Distinguish between expressed and discussed
Read and respond to embedded emotions in non verbal communication
Be sensitive to naming emotions
Balance your use of feelings, emotions, and moods
How can empathy help recover from inaccuracy?
Clarifying what the problem or opportunity is
Has the use of mild social-influence; stimulates movement
Bridges diversity gaps
Recover from inaccurate understanding
What are the tactics for responding with Empathy?
Place your response in the context of the client
Give yourself time
Use client's language, but remain yourself
Know the Shadow side to empathy?
How are non verbal and verbal prompts used?
Verbal and Non Verbal tactics for helping clients talk more freely and concretely about any issues at any stage of the helping process
Know what a probe is, and in which ways are they used.
-indicate the need for further clarity
Request- a need for the helpee to fill in the holes
Single words or phrases- highlights something hey say to encourage further development
Questions (try to get out of this)
The skill of using questions, and the benefit of open ended questions.
Don't ask too many questions
Clients feel grilled
Tends to go nowhere
Ask open-ended questions
Although close ended question may be effective at certain points
What is the balance between probe and empathic responses?
After using a probe to which a client responds, respond with empathy to what the client has to say.
Be hesitant to follow one probe with another.
1st if a probe is effective it will yield info that needs to be listened to and understood
2nd an empathic response if accurate tends to place a demand on the client to explore further.
Puts the ball in the client's court
When should one use a summary?
At the beginning of the new session
During a session that is going nowhere (put it back on track)
When a client needs a new perspective
Closing a session
Teresa Wiseman's 4 attributes of empathy
Staying out of judgment
Three feelings that are "incubators of judgement"
How courage and compassion have an impact on Empathy
People had the courage to be themselves and be imperfect
they had the courage to be kind to themselves and then to other
We can't help others unless they help themselves
They embraced vulnerable
What are the barriers to empathy
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