93 terms

Rat Dissection

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Frontal Plane
separates the rat into top and bottom halves (horizontal)
Transverse Plane
separates the rat into front and back halves
Sagittal Plane
separates the rat into left and right halves
Cranial
towards the head
Caudal
towards the tail
Dorsal
towards the back
Ventral
towards the belly
Medial
towards the midline
Lateral
away from the midline
Proximal
towards the body
Distal
away from the body
Frontal bone
bone on the front portion of the skull (forehead)
Parietal bone
bone on the side portion of the skull
Occipital bone
bone on the back side of the skull
Mandible
lower portion of the jaw bone (chin)
Maxilla
Upper portion of the jaw bone
Zygomatic Arch
bone that makes up the cheek
Atlas
first cervical vertebra
Axis
second cervical vertebra
Cervical vertebra
the first 7 vertebra
Thoracic vertebra
the middle 12 vertebra
Lumbar vertebra
the lower 5 vertebra
Sacral vertebra
the 5 vertebra below the lumbar vertebra
Caudal vertebra
all the vertebra making up the tail (below the sacral vertebra)
Ribs
the bones covering the stomach cavity
Scapula
shoulder blade
Sternum
the bone in the center of your chest
Clavicle
collar bone
Humerus
the large bone in the upper arm
Radius
the bone on the thumb side of the forearm
Ulna
the bone not on the thumb side of the forearm
Carpals
wrist bones
Metacarpals
the bones in-between the wrist and the fingers
Phalanges
fingers and toes
Ilium
the upper portion of the sacrum
Ischium
the lower portion of the sacrum
Femur
the large bone in the upper portion of the leg
Patella
knee cap
Tibia
the large bone in the lower portion of the leg
Fibula
the small bone in the lower portion of the leg
Calcaneus
heel bone
Tarsals
the bones in the ankle
Metatarsals
the bones between the ankle and the toes
Masseter
muscle located on the cheek (elevates the mandible)
Sternomastiod
muscle located in the neck (turns head)
Pectoralis superficialis
muscle on the chest (adducts forelimb)
Percoralis profundus
muscle on the chest (adducts forelimb)
Restus abdominus
muscle that goes down the side of the chest and belly (compresses abdomen)
Biceps brachii
muscle on front of arm (flexes forelimb)
Latissimus dorsi
large muscle on the back (pulls humerous backwards)
Spinodeltoid
muscle on shoulder (abducts humerous and pulls it forwards)
Triceps
located on the back portion of the arm (extend forearm)
Forearm flexors
muscle on the outer arm (flex wrist and digits)
Forearm Extendors
muscle on inner arm (extend paw and digits)
Gluteus superficialis
located on the butt and upper hindleg (abducts the thigh)
Semitendinous
located below the butt and on the hindleg (flexes the hindlimb)
Biceps femoris
on the hindleg (abducts the thing, flexes the hindlimb)
Vastus lateralis
upper portion on the hindlimb (hamstring) (extends the hindlimb)
Tibialis
lower portion of the hind limb, on shin (flexes hindfoot)
Gastrocnemius
calf muscles (extend hindfoot)
Mandibular gland
the lowest gland in the neck region (produces saliva)
Esophagus
located behind the trachea (food travels down this to the stomach)
Liver
large black structures beneath the diaphram (detoxification and secretes digestive enzymes)
Stomach
located beneath the liver (digests food)
Small intestines
between the stomach and the large intestines (helps digest food)
Pancreas
behind small intestine and liver (produces digestive enzymes and hormones)
Cecum
large part of large intestine that doesn't end (breakdown of cellulose)
Spleen
located on the left side of the body, brownish (helps immune system)
Colon
Large Intestine (reabsorbtion of water)
Teachea
windpipe (responsible for transporting air to lungs)
Lungs
sides of the heart (gas exchange occurs here)
Heart
center of chest (pumps blood to body)
Aorta
above heart (exports blood from heart to body)
Carotid Artery
goes from heart to head (takes blood up neck to brain)
Subclavian artery
goes from heart to clavicle region (transports blood)
External jugular veins
located in the neck (transport blood from the head to the heart)
Pulmonary Arteries
located in-between heart and lungs (take blood from heart to lungs)
Hepatic Portal vein
big yellow vein (takes blood from capillary bed to capillary bed)
Diaphragm
located beneath heart (muscle involved in breathing)
Vena cavae
located on left half of heart (take blood back to the heart from body)
Thymus
located on the top of the heart (produces T cells)
Urinary bladder
located right next to the anus (stores urine)
Kidney
bean shaped organ (concentrates urine)
Ureter
located inbetween kidney and bladder (transports urine to bladder)
Vas defrens
(transports sperm to the urethra) located next to the urethra
Penis
obvious what it is (male pees here)
Seminal Vesicle
(produce solutions that coagulate in the vagina) on either side of the bladder
Testis
(produce sperm)
Prostate
beneath bladder (nutrients for sperm)
Ovary
end of horn (produces eggs)
Uterine horn
on sides of lower body (implantation and development of embryo)
Vagina
(takes penis)
Epidydimus
(stores sperm) around testicle
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