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Geog 205 exam #2
Terms in this set (226)
Which major world religious group is the most evenly dispersed across the world's regions?
Which two major world religious groups are the most heavily concentrated in a single world region?
Buddhism and Hinduism
Which major world religion is both highly concentrated geographically and practiced mainly by those who live as a majority in their own country?
The United States is categorized as having what level of religious diversity?
Which world region has the highest level of religious diversity?
By what year is Sub-Saharan Africa expected to have the largest number of Christians in the world?
Which religious category is expected to see a decline in its numbers by 2050?
What is probably the most important contributing factor in both the growing number of Christians in Sub-Saharan Africa?
An official language is a
language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
A standard language is a
form of language that is widely recognized as the most acceptable for government business, education, and mass communication
A form of a language spoken in a particular region:
A literary tradition is
the written form of a language
A lingua franca is
a language understood by people who have different native languages
The language family with the largest number of speakers of its languages is
English is in the same language family as each of the following languages except
Finnish, spoken mainly in Finland
English is part of which language branch?
English is part of which language group?
The most commonly spoken language the world is
The English language is a "second" or "third" language in many regions where it is used as a(n)
The main difference between languages in the same family, branch, or group is
how far back in time the common ancestor of each language was spoken
English is most closely related to
A group of languages that share a common origin in the recent past and display many similarities in grammar and vocabulary is a
A group of languages that share a common ancestor before long recorded history is a
When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their group
isolation usually results in the language's differentiation into dialects and eventually into two distinct languages
A creolized language is
a mix of indigenous and colonial languages
A pidgin language
has no native speakers
British and American English differ in all but which of the following?
The large number of individual languages documented in New Guinea has resulted primarily from
a long history isolation and limited outside contact
As the world's population continues to increase, the number of languages spoken throughout the world is also increasing.
An ethnic religion is
appealing mostly to one group of people in one place
A universalizing religion
appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations
The ethnic religion with the largest number of adherents is
The universalizing religion with the largest number of adherents is
Which of the following is a branch of Christianity?
The largest branch of Islam is
Which religion has the largest number of adherents in South Asia?
Which religion has the largest number of adherents in Sub-Saharan Africa?
In which region of the world are all three major universalizing religions practiced by at least 10% of the population?
Each of the following religions has spread widely beyond its place of origin except
Most ethnic religions have limited, if any, diffusion. When they are found in other places far from their origins, it is a result of
A significant number of people migrated to the Upper Midwest region of the United States from
Race and ethnicity mean the same thing, and the terms can be used interchangeably.
Ethnicity refers mainly to
shared cultural characteristics
Race refers mainly to
perceived physical characteristics
The vast majority of all possible human genetic variations
exist within any given local population
Which of the following is true of race?
it is a concept that originated in Europe to help rationalize colonial conquest
Neither race nor ethnicity have any meaningful genetic basis. Instead they are made socially meaningful by attaching social importance to human attributes, circumstances, and/or practices.
The naturalization law of 1790 granted eligibility for U.S. citizenship to all
free white persons
Immigration from Ireland and from Southern and Eastern Europe to the U.S.
generated anxiety over the question of eligibility for citizenship
The National Origins Act of 1924
limited immigration mainly to Northern and Western Europeans
Each of the following is true of racial prerequisite cases except
they were based on objective, scientifically established criteria for categorizing people by race
In the wake of racial prerequisite case rulings against them, many immigrants from Asia who were already naturalized had their citizenship revoked.
Scientific advances helped resolve the "crisis of whiteness" by establishing the genetic basis for differentiating between racial groups.
The U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson
provided legal justification for the "separate but equal" doctrine
Each of the following was a push factor associated with the first Great Migration of Africans Americans from the U.S. South except
Practiced by white property owners, and prohibited the sale of houses to blacks or other minorities:
Practiced by banks, and was used to determine eligibility for mortgages and took race into consideration:
Practiced by real estate agents, and involved convincing white property owners to sell their houses at low prices out of fear that blacks or other minorities would soon move into the neighborhood:
Practiced by real estate agents, and involved directing home seekers toward or away from neighborhoods on the basis of their race:
Practiced by cities, and enforced segregation by designating neighborhoods as either black or white:
The dual housing market refers to
racially segregated housing markets operating under different rules of supply and demand
When African Americans first started moving into previously all-white neighborhoods, studies done at the time showed that, instead of falling, property values either remained stable or rose slightly.
Which of the following is true of mortgage lending to African American families in the decades after World War II?
many more African American families earned enough income to buy a house than actually received mortgages
Residential segregation has had no effect on the average wealth of whites and blacks in the U.S. today.
Which of the following prohibited intermarriage between members of different racial groups until they were ruled unconstitutional in 1967?
Which of the following refers to determining the classification of a child of mixed-race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent?
The United States Census Bureau requires people to check only one box for which race one identifies with.
Between 1980 and 2010 interracial and interethnic marriage as a share of all marriages in the U.S.
more than doubled
As of 2010 interracial and interethnic marriage made up what percentage of new marriages?
Latin America shares in common with the U.S. a long history of strict prohibitions against interracial marriage.
Which of the following locations were destinations for a smaller number of enslaved Africans than British Colonial America?
none of the above
The term mestizo refers to a person of both __________ descent.
European and Native
In which country do mestizos make up a large share of the population?
Although it is an exceptionally diverse country, racial/ethnic inequality and discrimination do still exist in Brazil.
The language adopted for use by a government for the conduct of business and publication of documents:
Some languages do not have literary traditions.
Each of the following is true of official languages except
an official language is always the most commonly spoken language in a country
Each of the following is among the four most commonly spoken languages in the world except
Which of the following is true of English?
it is a lingua franca that has diffused through colonization, education, and modern communication technologies
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who speak different native languages:
An established language that results from the mixing of two different languages:
The number of languages spoken in the world today is
A religion that combines practices and beliefs from two or more religions:
A widespread diffusion of adherents of an ethnic religion:
A large and fundamental division within a religion:
Universalizing religions appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place.
Which of the following is the world's most commonly practiced ethnic religion?
Of the following countries, which one has the fewest adherents of Islam?
Christianity is growing fastest in which region of the world?
The practice of an ethnic religion outside of the region where its adherents are concentrated is most likely due to relocation diffusion.
The earliest known domesticated wheat, barley, and rice crops are thought to have originated in Asia about
10,000 years ago
Squash, potatoes, and maize were domesticated in
Coffee, sorghum, and yams were domesticated in
Wheat, goats, and pigs were domesticated in
Which of the following is true of crop hearths?
agriculture emerged in multiple crops hearths independently
Endemic diseases became much less common as a result of the Neolithic revolution.
none of the above
Each of the following is true of commercial agriculture except
it now employs just six percent of the labor force in developed countries
Which of the following is true of the relationship between food production and population growth since 1960?
food production has increased more rapidly than population growth
The green revolution refers to
the rapid diffusion of new agricultural technologies during the 1970s and 1980s
Currently, hunting and gathering societies
are found in isolated places on the periphery of world settlement
Which type of agriculture feeds the largest share of the world's population?
intensive subsistence agriculture
Which of the following is not a form of subsistence agriculture?
Pastoral nomadism is most commonly found in which climate region?
Shifting cultivation is mainly practiced in places characterized by all of the following except
highly fertile soils
Compared to shifting cultivation, intensive subsistence agriculture is characterized by which of the following?
higher population densities
Plantations grow crops for consumption primarily by people living in the countries where such crops are grown.
The mixing crops and livestock is practiced for each of the following reasons except
the livestock provide some additional income while crops provide the main source of income
The practice of growing a variety of crops on a single plot of land:
The practice of using different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil:
The practice of harvesting twice a year from the same field:
Livestock ranching is most commonly practiced in a climate region most similar to that of which other type of agriculture?
In which countries is more than 50 percent of the labor force engaged in agriculture?
China, Ethiopia, and Mozambique
The largest proportion of farmers in Asia practice
intensive subsistence agriculture
Which of the following forms of agriculture is most commonly practiced in equatorial Africa and South America?
Each of the following forms of agriculture is commonly practiced in the Americas except
Which type of commercial agriculture is practiced almost exclusively in less developed countries?
To increase crop yields, farmers in southern China commonly practice
Which of the following is the most common form of agriculture in Florida?
Which of the following is the most common form of agriculture in California?
In the U.S. and other MDCs different steps in the food processing industry are highly integrated. This is known as
Shifting cultivation supports large population concentrations in places like East and South Asia.
Most of the maize (i.e. corn) grown in the American Midwest is consumed directly by humans rather than being used for animal feed.
An area organized into an independent political unit is a
A territory tied to a state rather than being completely independent is a
The ability of a state to govern free from outside control over its internal affairs:
The attempt by one country to impose political control over another territory:
The first states in ancient Mesopotamia were
After World War I, attempts were made to reorganize Europe into a collection of
Korea is an example of
a divided state
Somalia is an example of
a failed state
The Kurds are an example of
a stateless nation
Each of the following is a U.S. colonial possession except
Since 1945 the number of states in the world
has increased by well over a hundred
Which of the following is not a member of the United Nations?
Which of the following refers to a group of people who share legal attachment to a particular country?
Loyalty and devotion associated with one's legal attachment a particular country:
In contrast to a boundary, a frontier
is an area rather than a line
The boundaries separating the U.S. from Canada and Mexico are mainly
geometric and physical boundaries
The boundary between Germany and Poland is an example of
an ethnic boundary
The boundary between Argentina and Chile is an example of
a physical boundary
While multiple types of boundaries exist in Africa, nearly all of Africa's boundaries are
The only large land mass that is not part of a sovereign state is
Conflicting claims to the Arctic are mostly due to
the region's energy resources
Each of the following states claims sovereignty over a portion of Antarctica except
Claims of sovereignty over Antarctica
are not recognized by most other states
The territorial limits of most states with an ocean boundary
extend 12 nautical miles from state's coastal baseline
States have sole rights to exploit natural resources which
extend 200 nautical miles from state's coastal baseline
The area over which a state has sole rights to exploit natural resources is its
exclusive economic zone
Electoral geography is the study of
voting districts and voting patterns
The process of redrawing legislative boundaries to benefit the party in power is called
The strategy of drawing of legislative boundaries in a way that links distant areas of like-minded votes through oddly shaped boundaries:
The strategy of drawing of legislative boundaries in a way that spreads opposition supporters across many districts:
The strategy of drawing of legislative boundaries in a way that concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts:
The job of redrawing legislative boundaries in most U.S. states is entrusted to independent commissions.
The way in which legislative boundaries are drawn in the U.S. ensures that most congressional seats are competitive from one election to the next.
The redrawing of congressional boundaries in Texas between the 2002 and 2004 elections
replaced Democratic electoral overrepresentation with Republic electoral overrepresentation
The efficiency gap is designed to measure
the comparative proportions of each party's votes that are wasted as a result of gerrymandering
Which of the following is least applicable to the concept of "race"?
it is based on shared cultural characteristics
There has been far too much genetic intermixing over time, and not enough genetic isolation, for significant genetic differences between groups of human beings to have emerged.
The naturalization law of 1790 granted eligibility for U.S. citizenship to people of any nationality as long as they met certain conditions.
Each of the following played a part in resolving the "crisis of whiteness" except
scientific advances established the genetic basis for differentiating between racial groups
practiced by banks, and was used to determine eligibility for mortgages and took race into consideration
practiced by real estate agents, and involved convincing white property owners to sell their houses at low prices out of fear that blacks or other minorities would soon move into the neighborhood
Restrictive covenants were
practiced by white property owners, and prohibited the sale of houses to blacks or other minorities
Residential segregation creates a dual housing market with different rules of supply and demand for blacks and whites.
While a racial wealth gap does exist, blacks and whites earning the same income also have about the same amount wealth.
Which of the following provided legal justification for the "separate but equal" doctrine?
Plessy v. Ferguson
Which of the following determined whether or not members of various nationalities could become U.S. citizens?
racial prerequisite cases
Which of the following invalidated prohibitions against interracial marriage?
Loving v. Virginia
The term "hypodescent" refers to
the classification of a child of mixed-race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent
The term "mestizo" refers to
the combination of Native and European descent
In the field of political geography, the term "state" is another word for a
The first widespread occurrence of the city-state occurred in
Each of the following is true of the concept of the modern state except
it is defined by frontiers rather than boundaries
Colonialism refers to
the attempt by one country to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Sovereignty refers to
the ability of a state to govern free from outside control over its internal affairs
Recognition refers to
the formal acknowledgement by existing states of a new state's claim to independence
Palestine is best categorized as
a transitional state
Whereas Somalia as a whole is an example of a failed state, Somaliland is an example of
an unrecognized state
Taiwan is recognized by more states than Palestine
Each of the following groups is an example of a stateless nation except
There are no longer any colonies in the world today.
Most countries in the world today are nation-states.
The boundaries of countries in Europe are mostly
The boundaries of countries in Africa are mostly
The territory over which a state bordering an ocean exercises full sovereign authority does not extend beyond its shoreline.
The excess vote strategy entails drawing legislative boundaries in a way that
concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts
Which of the following is true of legislative district boundaries in the U.S.?
they can enable a party to win a majority of a state's seats without receiving a majority of its votes
What determines how many congressional seats each state in the U.S. gets?
each state's population
Why might the number of congressional seats each state has change?
a state's population might grow more or less quickly relative to other states
What is the term for when changes are made to the number of congressional seats a state has?
What must a state do if the number of congressional seats it has changes?
How many seats are there in the U.S. House of Representatives?
When was gerrymandering first practiced?
Packing a district is equivalent to the
excess vote strategy
Cracking a district is equivalent to the
wasted vote strategy
Which of the following statements best describes the shape of districts further away from Chicago (i.e. IL 2, 12-18)?
they are somewhat gerrymandered, but other districts in the state are even more gerrymandered
Zoom in to the Chicago area. Which of the following statements best describes the shape of districts located in and near Chicago (i.e. IL 1, 3-11)?
they are very gerrymandered, more so than other districts in the state
Which party's districts (based on these election results) are more gerrymandered?
districts that democrats won
Statewide, democratic candidates received 1,746,262 votes, and republican candidates received 1,683,763 votes. If the state's U.S. house election results were most closely proportional to the number of votes each party received
republicans would have won one additional seat
How many acres of farmland were lost to urbanization in California between 1990 and 2004?
There are 640 acres in a square mile. The amount of farmland lost to urbanization in California between 1990 and 2004 was approximately
510 square miles
he amount of farmland lost to urbanization in California between 1990 and 2004 is roughly equivalent to the land area of
According to John Hart, many farmers are "cash poor" because
their capital is tied up in their land
Challenges facing dairy farmers operating near newly urbanizing areas include each of the following except
soil erosion due to increased runoff
Although the Los Angeles area once led the nation, dairy production has since shifted to
Tulare County, about 200 miles north
Why are farmers in California drilling more groundwater wells?
the state has been experiencing a severe drought
As a consequence of pumping more groundwater
land has been subsiding at unprecedented rates
Additional effects of pumping more groundwater include each of the following except
increased urban sprawl
Which of the following is true of where agriculture originated?
agriculture originated in multiple hearth areas independently at around the same time
Each of the following was an impact of the Neolithic revolution except
the elimination of endemic diseases
The Columbian exchange entailed the transfer of crops between Africa, Asia, and Europe.
Commercial agriculture is characterized by each of the following except
participation of large portions of a country's labor force
It is not possible for any form of subsistence agriculture to support high population densities since it relies on little more than hand tools and animal power.
What is the main purpose of polyculture?
to produce a wide variety of crops from the same field
What is the main purpose of crop rotation?
to maintain adequate soil fertility
Which of the following forms of agriculture is found mainly in less developed countries (LDCs)?
Shifting cultivation is practiced mainly in areas that are too dry to grow crops on the same plot of land every year.
Livestock ranching and pastoral nomadism are both mainly practiced in
Polyculture is a practice most commonly associated with which of the following forms of agriculture?
Which of the following forms of agriculture is the leading cause of deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region?
Desertification is a problem in Africa's Sahel region, where people mainly practice
In the U.S., the 20-inch rainfall line marks the approximate boundary between mixed crop and livestock farming and
Crops grown in mixed crop and livestock regions are used primarily to feed animals.
Mediterranean agriculture is so named because it is practiced only on land bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
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