53 terms

8th Science Weather

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Weather
the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place
Atmosphere
the envelope of gasses surrounding the Earth
Lightning
electrons and high voltage traveling from a cloud to another point
Warm Front
boundary of a low pressure, less dense air system
Cold Front
boundary of a higher pressure, more dense air system
Acid Rain
caused by chemical air pollutants trapped by rain; precipitation that falls to Earth with a pH less than 7
Altitude
height above the ground; aka elevation
Air Mass
large body of air that has about the same temperature and humidity through out it
Barometric pressure
measure of the weight of the atmosphere on Earth's surface
Beaufort Wind Scale
a system for estimating wind speed based on visual observation
Celsius
temperature scale where water freezes at 0 and boils at 100
Climate
general pattern of weather in a location over a long period of time
Cloud
group of tiny liquid water droplets suspended in the air
Condensation
process in which matter changes from a gaseous, vapor state to a liquid state
Dew
Water vapor from the atmosphere that has condensed into liquid on the surface of the Earth
Dew point
Air temperature at which dew will form
El Nino
unusually warm ocean current in Pacific Ocean that shift ocean current patterns
La Nina
cooling of the Pacific Ocean near the equator
Equator
imaginary line around the middle of the Earth half way between the two poles
Exosphere
outer most layer of the Earth's atmosphere
Fahrenheit
temperature scale used in the United States; water freezes at 32 and boils at 212
Front
place where two air masses of different temperatures and pressures meet
Occluded Front
cold fronts capture and overtake a warm front between them
Global wind
a wind that blows in the same direction across thousands of miles
Thermal Energy
heat energy
Solar Energy
light and heat that comes from the sun
Sun
driving energy force for Earth's weather, wind, climate, and ocean currents
High Pressure
phenomena usually associated with clear weather; map symbol blue capital H
Low Pressure
phenomena usually associated with wet or overcast weather; map symbol red capital L
Hurricane
a huge, slow spinning tropical storm in Atlantic Ocean with winds of 74mph or greater; generally called a Typhoon or Cyclone in Pacific Ocean
Isotherm
a line on a weather that connects points of equal air temperature
Isobar
a line on a weather map that connects points of equal air pressure
Jet Stream
high speed wind high in atmosphere that moves from West to East in the Northern Hemisphere
Weather Map
flat picture of Earth containing symbols and fronts
Millibar
a unit measurement of air pressure
-nimbus or nimbo-
any cloud that can produce precipitation
Ocean Current
Flow of ocean water that moves in a regular pattern
Ozone Layer
part of Earth's upper atmosphere that blocks part of the Sun's UV radiation
Polar
refers to the region near North or South Pole based on Earth's axis
Precipitation
moisture falling from clouds in any form such as snow, hail, or raindrops
Stationary Front
boundary between 2 air masses where the masses are not moving
Stratus
Clouds in layers with a flat base, usually at low altitudes
Temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
Tornado
destructive, wind funnel that usually moves quickly over land
Troposhere
layer of Earth's atmosphere nearest the surface where weather takes place
Water Cycle
process where water moves through an environment through evaporation, precipitation, and condensation
Wind
movement of air caused by differences in air pressure
Barometer
weather instrument that measures air pressure
Thermometer
instrument that measures relative temperature
Anemometer
weather instrument that measures wind speed
Hygrometer
weather instrument that measures relative humidity
Relative Humidity
amount of water vapor in the air reported as a percentage compared to complete air saturation at a specific temperature
Specific Heat
Amount of energy needed to raise a substance by 1 degree Celsius
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