21 notes a Dr. M
Terms in this set (81)
upper and lower respiratory systems
Upper Respiratory System
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx help filter, warm and humidify incoming air and cool and dehumidify air going out.
Lower Respiratory System
larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs.
consists of airways that carry air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs and contains a conducting portion (from nasal cavity to the terminal bronicholes) and a respiratory portion (from respiratory bronchioles to respiratory membranes).
mucosal lining that lines the conducting portion of the respiratory tract. The respiratory defense system includes mucus (from globlet cells), mucus escalator (take mucus to pharynx and swallow), and alveolar macrophages.
formed from the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, palatine, and maxillary bones also secrete mucus from their mucous epithelium.
underlining layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium.
prevents drying out of air and warms up the air before the air goes down to the lungs.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
defective gene on chromosome 7 that codes for membrane channel protein that makes mucus more watery. CF patients' mucous is too thick to be transported by the mucus escalator. Mucus plugs block smaller respiratory passageways. Higher risk for bacterial infections because the pathogens can not be cleared. They also have problems with digestive track. Treat symptoms with antibiotics and respiratory therapy. People with cystic fibrosis don't normally live beyond the age of 30.
area in nose between the external and internal nares
space in the nose cavity that contain the soft tissues of the nose plus course nose hairs.
Superior, middle, and inferior meatuses
narrow groves in the nasal cavity where incoming air bounces off of and contacts mucus. Helps filter, warm and humidify incoming air.
formed by portions of the maxillary and palatine bones, floor of the nasal cavity and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth.
fleshy extension going posterior from the hard palate; marks the boundary between the nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx
connection between the nasal cavity and nasopharynx
(epistaxis) may be caused by trauma, dry areas, infections, allergies, clotting disorders, pressure changes, and hypertension. Rupturing of blood vessels in the mucosa lining of the nose.
top portion lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (internal nares to soft palate)
stratified squamous to resist abrasion, chemical irritants and pathogenic invasion (soft palate to base of tongue level of hyoid bone)
stratified squamous (hyoid bone level to larynx)
a short cylinder made mainly of cartilage walls
a narrow opening to the larynx
cartilaginous structure surrounds and protects glottis (starts at C4 or C5 level and goes down to C6)
1) Thyroid Cartilage (shield)
largest larynx cartilage (hyaline)
Laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)-
on anterior surface of thyroid cartilage (you can see and feel it)
hyaline cartilage under thyroid cartilage, ring shaped (cricoid and thyroid cartilages protect glottis, and entrance to trachea)
shoe horn shaped elastic cartilage, provides a lid over glottis as we swallow, prevents aspiration.
You can feel larynx rise during swallowing and epiglottis folds over it.
1) Arytenoid Cartilage-
ladle shaped-opening and closing of glottis and production of sound
2) Corniculate Cartilage-
horn shaped-helps with opening and closing glottis and production of sound
3) Cuneiform Cartilage-
wedge shaped cartilage
are in elastic tissue, prevents objects from entering the glottis and protects vocal folds
Vocal Folds (vocal cords)-
guard entrance to glottis, highly elastic, involved with the production of sound. Pitch of sound depends on the diameter, length, and tension in the vocal folds
air vibrates vocal folds of glottis and produces sound waves. The size of larynx and tension of vocal folds (voluntary muscle control) determine the pitch (frequency) of sound.
The Laryngeal Musculature-
larynx associated with muscles of neck and pharynx and small intrinsic muscles. These muscles move the larynx cartilages and open and close glottis.
food touches vestibular or vocal folds, trigger cough reflex, glottis closed, chest and abdomen contract, compress lungs, force air through glottis to eject material. Protective response to allow only air to go to the lungs.
infection or inflammation of larynx-affects vibration quality of vocal folds
infection or inflammation of epiglottis, very dangerous because it can shut off airway
starts from C6 to T5 in the mediastinum, attached to cricoid cartilage, mucosa surface similar to nasal cavity and nasopharynx
thick layer of connective tissue surrounds mucosa with mucous glands
15-20 C-shaped cartilages bound together by elastic annular ligaments. The open portion faces esophagus. Trachealis muscle and annular ligament close off the open end of the c-shaped cartilage. Changes in the diameter of lumen of the trachea depend on smooth muscle contraction and relaxation (the sympathetic division increase diameter of trachea).
object lodged in larynx or trachea, normally expelled by coughing.
breathe in foreign objects
Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrust)-
if person can't speak or make a sound, an applied force compression just below diaphragm can generate enough pressure to force object out (cost can damage internal organs by saving a life)
needed if epiglottis or glottis swells shut, immovable object, or crushed larynx, surgically place hole in trachea to bypass larynx to get air flow to trachea
The Primary Bronchi
(extrapulmonary bronchi) branch within mediastinum
Right Primary Bronchi and Left Primary Bronchi-
each goes to its respective lung, right primary bronchi has larger diameter therefore more objects get trapped there
an indentation in medial side of lungs, entrance for vessels, nerves, and primary bronchi
contains mesh work of dense connective tissue, holds vessels, nerves, bronchi, at hilus and connects to mediastinum
top of the lungs
bottom of the lungs
Three lobes on the right
superior, middle and inferior separated by horizontal and oblique fissures. Right lung is broader to accommodate for room for the liver
Two lobes on left
superior and inferior, separated by oblique fissure. Left lung is longer to accommodate the heart and the great vessels
Causative agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Symptoms: coughing, chest pain, fever and weight loss. Bacteria colonize in respiratory passageways, interstitial spaces, alveoli. Macrophages wall off infection abscesses form, scar tissue forms, this causes decreased surface area exchange, increase resistance, and decrease airflow. Treatment can include several antibiotics in combination for 6 to 9 months (Mycobacterium tuberculosis have drug resistant plasmids)
go to each lobe and then to the
supply air to bronchopulmonary segment
specific region in lung (right lung has 10, left lung has 8-9)
Bronchial Tree (intrapulmonary bronchi)
Formed by the primary bronchi and their branches
As the bronchi progress from primary to secondary to tertiary, the amount of ____________ increases while the amount of cartilage decreases.
technique using a bronchoscope to look at bronchioles
inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles
fiber optic tool used to look into bronchioles, insert into trachea
bronchoscope or catheter sends out a radioactive dye into bronchi to get better resolution in x-ray of small fine bronchi of lung. Can detect tumors or obstructions with this imaging technique
the tertiary bronchi branch within bronchopulmonary segment to little twigs the bronchioles
Sympathetic division activated
it induces bronchodilation
Allergic reactions such as ________(response to histamines) induces bronchoconstriction
finest conducting branches, 6500 terminal bronchioles/ tertiary bronchus. Terminal bronchiole branch into respiratory bronchioles
Made of cuboidal epithelial cells (no goblet cells, some are ciliated) thinnest, delicate branches of bronchial tree. They deliver air to the gas exchange surfaces of lung.
subdivided lung lobes individually supplied with pulmonary arteries, veins, and respiratory passageways, boundary is the interlobular septum
divide lung into pulmonary lobules-fine connective tissue partitions
bronchioles connect to individual alveoli and multiple alveoli. Alveoli are wrapped in capillary beds and elastic fibers to recoil as we exhale.
Alveolar Ducts -
connection areas between respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
Pneumocytes Type I cells
are squamous epithelial cell lining of the alveolus
Endothelial cell lining of an adjacent capillary
The fused basal lamina between the squamous epithelial cell lining of the aveolus and the endothelial cell lining of an adjacent capillary
(Pneumocytes Type II Cells)- are larger than pnuemocytes Type I cells and scattered among alveoli squamous cells (pneumocytes type I cells); They secrete surfactant.
an oily mixture of phospholipids and proteins. Surfactant decreases the surface tension of the alveolar surface. Surfactant is like glycerol in bubbles mixture; it prevents the alveoli from collapsing. Surfactant interacts with water molecules to decrease surface tension and keep alveoli open. Premature babies have low to no surfactant.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome-
can be caused by low surfactant levels. Alveoli collapse during exhale and cause labored breathing
patrol alveolar epithelial surfaces and phagocytize particles that the nose mucous and pharynx have missed.
pathogenic infection caused by an inflammation of lobules of the lungs. Subsequently, fluids leak into the alveoli, respiratory bronchioles swell and constrict. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV or AIDS, are the most likely to come down with pneumonia. The fungus Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia; normally this fungus is in healthy lungs, but respiratory defenses prevent an infection and tissue damage.