76 terms

Road to Revolution 2017-2018

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Great Awakening
Evangelical revival in which preachers traveled the country and gave lectures about religion. This created unity among colonists because people in different colonies had a shared experience, built feelings of individualism, and started to build an "American identity"
Benjamin Franklin
Colonial diplomat; helped to keep peace between colonies and European nations. Was a publisher, scientist, and public servant. A self-made man who promoted working hard and thinking logically.
Enlightenment
Period in which people started to think logically and rationally about society and government.
John Locke
Enlightenment philosopher who believed the government's job is to protect people's rights and if the government does not protect the people's rights, the people have the right to rebel. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government"
Education System in the Colonies
Value and desire for learning in the colonies, mandatory schooling in New England resulted in the colonies being the most literate population in the 1700s
Freedom of Press
Ability to publicly challenge unjust and unfair laws was protected by this right. Printing press allowed ideas to spread quickly across colonies.
Causes of British vs. French Rivalry
Both claimed the same North American territory and both were fighting for control over global commerce
Treaty of Paris 1763
Agreement to end the French and Indian War. France lost most territory east of the Mississippi River and territory in India. Spain lost Florida but gained territory west of Mississippi River. England got all previously French territory in Canada, exclusive trading rights to Caribbean Slave Trade, and commercial control over India.
Natural Rights
Rights given to us because we are human and alive; includes: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, property
Social contract
Unwritten agreement between people and government about their roles
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin's proposed plan to create a permanent, single legislature for all of the colonies. The colonies rejected this plan because they had more power when they were acting individually.
French & Indian War (Seven Years War)
Fought between the British and French over claims to territory in the Ohio River Valley. British won.
Pontiac's Rebellion
Native Americans rebelled against the British and destroyed every British fort west of the Appalachians in the Great Lakes region. 2,000 colonists were captured and killed.
William Pitt
English prime minister who raised taxes and borrowed money to win the French and Indian War. Gained colonial loyalty and military cooperation with the British.
Jonathan Edwards
Started the revival movement, the Great Awakening, because he felt people were "unconverted" and had no spirit or enthusiasm about their faith.
George Whitfield
Famous preacher during the Great Awakening, preached about repentance and faith.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist/publisher who printed false information that made the colonial governor of NY look bad. He was later found not guilty and his case set a precedent for freedom of the press.
Edward Braddock
British general who, with the help of Washington, evicted the French from the Ohio River Valley, which led to the start of the French and Indian War.
George Washington
Land surveyor who aided General Edward Braddock in evicting French from the Ohio River Valley
Tensions between British and American Colonists after the French and Indian War
British felt that American colonists were poorly trained, disorderly mess, and unwilling to defend the newly gained land
Colonists felt the British had poor military leadership and that they could defend themselves without the British
Effects of the French & Indian War on colonists
United colonists against a common enemy for the first time, created a socializing experience for all colonials who participated, created bitter colonial feelings towards the British after having fought side-by-side
Main British issues after the French and Indian War
Friction among colonies, debt from war, needed to decide how to govern new territories, Indian attacks, Pontiac Rebellion
Proclamation of 1763
Forbid British or colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; wanted to stabilize relations between colonists and Native Americans after Pontiac's Rebellion
Fort Duquesne
French fort in the Ohio River Valley, defended by Delaware and Shawnee Indians
Fort Necessity
British fort in the Ohio River Valley, defended by Washington and the Virginia militia
Motivations for British imperial reorganization after the French and Indian War
Needed to make money to pay off war debts and felt that colonists needed closer supervision
Pontiac
Leader of the Ottawa tribe and leader of the Rebellion between (1763-1766) in territory gained by British in French and Indian War
George Grenville
Prime Minister of Great Britain as of April 1763, wanted colonists to pay more taxes for their government and cost of defense
Stamp Act
Passed in March 1765, this law taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and most other printed materials
Colonists' response to the stamp act
Signed a petition and sent it to Britain, forced stamp collectors to resign/quit, looted the Lieutenant Governor's house, and physically assaulted some of the tax collectors
Militia
Armed citizens that served as soldiers during an emergency
Two Treatises of Government
Written by John Locke, these documents explained natural rights and the role of the government.
Prime Minister
Runs the government for the monarch.
King George III
Ruled England for sixty years and wanted a constitutional monarchy that worked with the Prime Minister and the Parliament
Writs of Assistance (1760)
Seizure of illegally imported goods by a general search warrant. Aimed to end smuggling and ensure colonists had to pay taxes on British goods
Quartering Act of 1765
Required colonists to provide food and shelter to British troops. This law aimed to provide housing and rations for soldiers without the British government paying for it.
Sugar Act of 1764
This law lowered the tax on sugar but was going to harshly punish anyone caught smuggling non-British sugar products
Stamp Act of 1765
This law taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and other printed materials.
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from 9 colonies met in New York to discuss the tax on paper goods in October, 1765. The meeting was organized by James Otis and most colonists believed they should not be taxed without representation in the British Parliament.
Forms of colonial protest
mob violence, effigies, tarring and feathering, petitions, vandalism, boycotts
Petition
A formal request to do something that is signed by many individuals and often sent to the government. American colonists signed one of these protesting the Stamp Act.
Vice Admiralty Courts
Courts that dealt with smuggling issues. There was one judge and no jury. Judge was allowed to keep ⅕ of confiscated items
James Otis
Known for coining the phrase, "no taxation without representation"
Samuel Adams
Agitator and propagandist, he wrote persuasive newspaper essays to share his ideas, organize protests, and speak out against the British government. He was a member of the Sons of Liberty and in various Committees of Correspondence
Patrick Henry
Independent and skilled lawyer who had great speaking skills, he famously said, "give me liberty or give me death."
Sons of Liberty
Political organization that famously dumped British tea into Boston's harbor
Boycott
Refusal to buy certain products or use certain services as an act of protest
Declaratory Act of 1766
Declared that Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for colonists no matter what. Parliament wanted to assert power and authority over the colonists
Townshend Acts of 1767
Taxed colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper. Money from these taxes paid the salaries of royal officials in the colonies. Parliament wanted to indirectly tax colonists so they would complain less.
Colonial Reactions to the Townshend Acts
Colonists accepted these taxes at first and then decided to boycott all the British goods being taxed
Boston Massacre
British troops opened fire on a mob of colonists in Boston who were harassing them. Five colonists died. This event occurred on March 5, 1770
Tea Act of 1773
This tax lowered the cost of British tea and aimed to put an end to colonial smuggling. Colonists continued to refuse to buy British tea.
Boston Tea Party
The Sons of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped British tea into the Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773.
Political radicals
group of people who want to peacefully or violently incite immediate and complete change for the future
Political moderates
group of people who want to peacefully acquire some change for the future that is enacted gradually so that people have time to adjust
Political conservatives
group of people who want to preserve the best of what exists today, if they want any change, they want it to happen very slowly
Political reactionaries
group of people who want to look to the past for solutions and home to incite immediate and complete change either through peaceful or violent measures
John Dickinson
Author of "Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania," he believed that Parliament could regulate commerce but any duties are a form of taxation and the colonists should be represented in Parliament for fair taxing
Gesture Politics
Actions that speak to the political beliefs of a person or group of people. One example of this is the Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts of 1774
These laws limited Massachusetts town meetings to once per year, suspended the Massachusetts General Court, closed the Port of Boston, appointed General Thomas Gage as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts, and updated the Quartering Act
Colonial grievances about the Intolerable Acts
Took away the rights of Massachusetts citizens to self-rule, to make money, to a fair trial, and invaded their privacy
Accomplishments of the First Continental Congress
Rejected British authority of colonial union, endorsed a statement of grievances to Parliament, recommended all colonists prepare for defense, boycott all British goods, and meet again the Spring of 1775
Grievances
Complaints
General Thomas Gage
Appointed royal governor of Massachusetts as part of the Intolerable Acts; he sent the Massachusetts colonial legislature home
First Continental Congress
Elected delegates from all thirteen colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia in September of 1774. All colonies agreed to boycott British goods, prepare for defense against British, reject British authority in the colonies, endorse a statement of grievances, and meet again in one year.
Patriots
Colonists who wanted to break free from British rule
Loyalists
Colonists who wanted to continue to support the British crown
Committees of Correspondence
Groups of colonists who joined together to organize resistance against British rule. Both James Otis and Samuel Adams were leaders.
John Adams
Defended the British after the Boston Massacre
Crispus Attucks
African American man who was killed at Boston Massacre
Main arguments of Colonists against the "new" policies of Britain
Colonists felt they should not be taxed without their consent, after 150 years of salutary neglect, the British should not try to tighten control, the colonists felt they should have equal rights and liberties to people in Great Britain
Captain Thomas Preston
British captain that claims he did NOT order the British troops to fire on colonists at the Boston Massacre
Charles Townshend
British Prime Minister who passed the Townshend Acts
Governor Thomas Hutchinson
Governor of Massachusetts during "the troubles" -- believed colonists should be able to make their own laws as they have in the past
Paul Revere
Rider who rode from Boston the night before to warn the minutemen of the British plans, Gage's troops met armed resistance at Lexington and were harassed by gunfire from Concord back to Boston
Battle of Lexington and Concord
On April 19, 1775, the first battle of the Revolutionary War, General Thomas Gage and 1,000 British troops marched towards Concord to check on a tip that Massachusetts minutemen were storing gunpowder there. The British were fired on at Lexington and their entire retreat back to Boston