Evangelical revival in which preachers traveled the country and gave lectures about religion. This created unity among colonists because people in different colonies had a shared experience, built feelings of individualism, and started to build an "American identity"
Colonial diplomat; helped to keep peace between colonies and European nations. Was a publisher, scientist, and public servant. A self-made man who promoted working hard and thinking logically.
Period in which people started to think logically and rationally about society and government.
Enlightenment philosopher who believed the government's job is to protect people's rights and if the government does not protect the people's rights, the people have the right to rebel. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government"
Education System in the Colonies
Value and desire for learning in the colonies, mandatory schooling in New England resulted in the colonies being the most literate population in the 1700s
Freedom of Press
Ability to publicly challenge unjust and unfair laws was protected by this right. Printing press allowed ideas to spread quickly across colonies.
Causes of British vs. French Rivalry
Both claimed the same North American territory and both were fighting for control over global commerce
Treaty of Paris 1763
Agreement to end the French and Indian War. France lost most territory east of the Mississippi River and territory in India. Spain lost Florida but gained territory west of Mississippi River. England got all previously French territory in Canada, exclusive trading rights to Caribbean Slave Trade, and commercial control over India.
Rights given to us because we are human and alive; includes: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, property
Unwritten agreement between people and government about their roles
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin's proposed plan to create a permanent, single legislature for all of the colonies. The colonies rejected this plan because they had more power when they were acting individually.
French & Indian War (Seven Years War)
Fought between the British and French over claims to territory in the Ohio River Valley. British won.
Native Americans rebelled against the British and destroyed every British fort west of the Appalachians in the Great Lakes region. 2,000 colonists were captured and killed.
English prime minister who raised taxes and borrowed money to win the French and Indian War. Gained colonial loyalty and military cooperation with the British.
Started the revival movement, the Great Awakening, because he felt people were "unconverted" and had no spirit or enthusiasm about their faith.
Famous preacher during the Great Awakening, preached about repentance and faith.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist/publisher who printed false information that made the colonial governor of NY look bad. He was later found not guilty and his case set a precedent for freedom of the press.
British general who, with the help of Washington, evicted the French from the Ohio River Valley, which led to the start of the French and Indian War.
Land surveyor who aided General Edward Braddock in evicting French from the Ohio River Valley
Tensions between British and American Colonists after the French and Indian War
British felt that American colonists were poorly trained, disorderly mess, and unwilling to defend the newly gained land Colonists felt the British had poor military leadership and that they could defend themselves without the British
Effects of the French & Indian War on colonists
United colonists against a common enemy for the first time, created a socializing experience for all colonials who participated, created bitter colonial feelings towards the British after having fought side-by-side
Main British issues after the French and Indian War
Friction among colonies, debt from war, needed to decide how to govern new territories, Indian attacks, Pontiac Rebellion
Proclamation of 1763
Forbid British or colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; wanted to stabilize relations between colonists and Native Americans after Pontiac's Rebellion
French fort in the Ohio River Valley, defended by Delaware and Shawnee Indians
British fort in the Ohio River Valley, defended by Washington and the Virginia militia
Motivations for British imperial reorganization after the French and Indian War
Needed to make money to pay off war debts and felt that colonists needed closer supervision
Leader of the Ottawa tribe and leader of the Rebellion between (1763-1766) in territory gained by British in French and Indian War
Prime Minister of Great Britain as of April 1763, wanted colonists to pay more taxes for their government and cost of defense
Passed in March 1765, this law taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and most other printed materials
Colonists' response to the stamp act
Signed a petition and sent it to Britain, forced stamp collectors to resign/quit, looted the Lieutenant Governor's house, and physically assaulted some of the tax collectors
Armed citizens that served as soldiers during an emergency
Two Treatises of Government
Written by John Locke, these documents explained natural rights and the role of the government.
Runs the government for the monarch.
King George III
Ruled England for sixty years and wanted a constitutional monarchy that worked with the Prime Minister and the Parliament
Writs of Assistance (1760)
Seizure of illegally imported goods by a general search warrant. Aimed to end smuggling and ensure colonists had to pay taxes on British goods
Quartering Act of 1765
Required colonists to provide food and shelter to British troops. This law aimed to provide housing and rations for soldiers without the British government paying for it.
Sugar Act of 1764
This law lowered the tax on sugar but was going to harshly punish anyone caught smuggling non-British sugar products
Stamp Act of 1765
This law taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and other printed materials.
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from 9 colonies met in New York to discuss the tax on paper goods in October, 1765. The meeting was organized by James Otis and most colonists believed they should not be taxed without representation in the British Parliament.
Forms of colonial protest
mob violence, effigies, tarring and feathering, petitions, vandalism, boycotts
A formal request to do something that is signed by many individuals and often sent to the government. American colonists signed one of these protesting the Stamp Act.
Vice Admiralty Courts
Courts that dealt with smuggling issues. There was one judge and no jury. Judge was allowed to keep ⅕ of confiscated items