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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
AP US History Chapters 7-8
Terms in this set (84)
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers," he was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England;
He was the ringleader in storing gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
King George III's stout prime minister from 1770's-1782;
He was governor during the Boston Tea Party;
Lord North's rule fell in March of 1782, which therefore ended the rule of George III for a short while.
The British Prime Minister from 1763-1765;
To obtain funds for Britain after the costly Seven Years' War, in 1763 he ordered the Navy to enforce the unpopular Navigation Laws;
In 1764 he got Parliament to pass the Sugar Act, which increased duties on sugar imported from the West Indies;
He also, in 1765, brought about the Quartering Act, which forced colonists to provide food and shelter to British soldiers, who many colonists believed were only present to keep the colonists in line.
In 1765, he imposed the Stamp Act, which put taxes on everything from newspapers to marriage licenses.
These measures disgruntled the colonists, created anger towards the mother country, unified them, and helped provide the beginnings of the American Revolution.
Often called the "Penman of the Revolution," he was a master propagandist and an engineer of rebellion;
Though very weak and feeble in appearance, he was a strong politician and leader who was very aware and sensitive to the rights of the colonists;
He organized the local Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts, starting with Boston in 1772. These committees were designed to oppose British policy forced on the colonists by spreading propaganda.
Was in control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk;
He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts.
These new regulations imposed a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonists were very much against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.
Patriot of the American Revolution and second president of the U.S. from 1796-1800;
He attended the Continental Congress in 1774 as a delegate from Georgia;
He swayed his countrymen to take revolutionary action against England which later gained American independence from the English.
King George III
Was king of England in the 1770's during the lead up to the Revolutionary War;
Though he was a good man, he was not a good ruler;
He contributed to the imperial crisis by his dogged insistence on asserting Britain's power over her colonial possessions;
He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.
Baron Von Steuben
Stern, Prussian (German) inspector general and drillmaster in the Continental Army who trained the novice colonial militia in the art of warfare during the Revolutionary War, primarily at Valley Forge.
Economic theory that simply states a nation's power is determined by its wealth in gold;
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country and they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency;
The settlers were regarded more or less as tenants and were expected to produce tobacco and other products needed in England and not to bother their heads with dangerous experiments in agriculture or self-government.
"No Taxation without Representation"
This is a theory of popular government that developed in England;
This doctrine was used by the colonists to protest the Stamp Act of 1765;
The colonists declared that they had no one representing them in Parliament, so Parliament had no right to tax them. England continued to tax the colonists causing them to deny Parliament's authority completely;
Thus, the colonists began to consider their own political independence. This eventually led to revolutionary consequences.
A royal veto was when legislation passed by the colonial assemblies conflicted with British regulations. It was then declared void by the Privy Council. It was resented by the colonists even though it was only used 469 times out of 8563 laws.
Internal taxation were taxes on goods within the colonies and acted much like a sales tax;
The Stamp Act of 1765 is an example of internal taxation;
External taxation applied to imports into the colonies - the merchant importing the good paid the tax on it, much like the Sugar Act of 1764.
Colonists were more accepting of external taxation and more opposed to internal taxation.
Theory that claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in the colonies who had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.
To abstain from using, buying, or dealing with something;
Labor unions, consumer groups and countries boycott products to force a company or government to change its politics;
Also called "non-importation";
Was the top weapon of "The Association."
The Boards of Trade
An English legislative body, based in London, that was instituted for the governing and economic control of the American colonies;
It lacked many powers, but kept the colonies functioning under the mercantile system while its influence lasted;
The height of the Boards' power was in the late 1690's.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
An organization established in 1765, these members (usually in the middle or upper class) resisted the Stamp Act of 1765;
Even though the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the Sons and Daughters of Liberty combined remained active in resistance movements.
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim to the Quebec Region, a French-speaking area;
Because of the cultural difference, England had a dilemma on what to do with the region;
The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allowed the French colonists to go back freely to their own customs;
The colonists had the right to worship the Catholic faith freely;
It extended to the Quebec region south into the Ohio River Valley, said the area did not have to have a trial by jury (which was the French traditional norm);
The American colonists felt betrayed because (1) Catholic lands grew, (2) the Proclamation Line of 1763 forbade English/American settlement), and (3) the Americans felt the right to trial by jury was under attack.
The Quebec Act created more tension between the colonists and the British and helped lead to the American Revolution.
Starting in 1650 and into the early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists known as the Navigation Acts;
For example, an early act said that all goods must be shipped in colonial or English ships, and all imports to colonies must be on colonial or English ships or the ships of the producer;
A 1660 version enumerated articles, such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, saying they could only be exported to England from the colonies;
A 1663 version of the Navigation Acts known as the "Staple Act of 1663" said all imports to the colonies must go through England;
A 1673 add-on to the Staple Act collected tax from imports to the colonies for England;
In 1696 the last act of the Navigation Acts, at least in theory, enforced all of the Navigation Acts, and established penalties for violators. Also, it established admiralty courts in the colonies for prosecuting violations.
Molasses Act of 1733
This act placed a tax on molasses which was a major commodity from the West Indies;
It coincides with the Navigation Acts in that they were both manifestations of the British policies of mercantilism;
It was the first of many taxes that came later on.
In 1764, this act was put in place for raising revenue in the colonies for the crown;
It increased the duties on foreign sugar, mainly from the West Indies;
After protests from the colonists, the duties were lowered.
Law passed by Britain to force colonists to pay taxes to house and feed British soldiers;
Passed in the same few years as the Navigation Laws of 1763, the Sugar Act of 1764, and the Stamp Act of 1765, it stirred up even more resentment for the British;
The legislature of New York was suspended in 1767 for failing to comply with the Quartering Act.
In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act, requiring the colonists to pay for a stamp to go on many of the documents essential to their lives;
These documents included deeds, mortgages, liquor licenses, playing cards, and almanacs;
The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports;
In 1766 Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, a major victory for colonists.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting in New York City attended by twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies in 1765 to discuss measures for dealing with the Stamp Act;
It had little effect at the time but broke barriers and helped move toward colonial unity.
In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act;
This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever";
It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps and restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act;
However, it stated that Britain still had the right to tax (which it would continue to use).
In 1767, "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts;
These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea;
The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea;
Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea;
The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Offenders of the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 were tried in courts with no juries where the defendant was presumed guilty until proven innocent;
Americans felt their basic rights as Englishmen were being violated, and the animosity created fuel for independence from England.
Committees of Correspondence
A letter-writing network;
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters;
They were used to sustain opposition to British policy;
The committees were extremely effective and critical in building and creating a revolutionary spirit amongst the Americans;
Also, the Committees of Correspondence were a predecessor of the Continental Congress -- It was the men on the Committee who later were in the Congress.
First Continental Congress
The Congress was a convention and a consultative body that met for seven weeks, from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in Philadelphia;
It was the Americans' response to the Intolerable Acts and considered ways of redressing colonial grievances;
All the colonies except Georgia sent 55 distinguished men in all;
John Adams persuaded his colleagues to move closer to revolution and they wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to the British American colonies, the king, and British people;
The Congress created The Association which called for a complete boycott of English goods;
The Association was the closest thing to a written constitution until the Constitution;
As time wore on, the peaceful petitions were rejected which created a pathway to revolution.
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods;
This included non-importation (boycotts), non-exportation and non-consumption;
It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies;
It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation;
Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered.
Boston Tea Party
A "revolt" on the Tea Act passed by Parliament where the Sons of Liberty, led by Samuel Adams, dressed up like Indians and raided English ships in Boston Harbor;
They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor;
As a result, the Massachusetts charter was taken away.
Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution.
The name Continental is associated to two congresses;
The first is in 1774 and the second is in 1775;
They both took place in Philadelphia;
The Continental Congresses brought the leaders of the thirteen colonies together;
This was the beginning of the national union.
Political theory of representative government, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with a strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue;
Influential in 18th century American political thought, it stood as an alternative to monarchical rule.
18th century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power;
Their writings shaped American political thought and made colonists especially alter to encroachments on their rights
Boycotts against British goods and adopted in response to the Stamp Act and, later, the Townshend and Intolerable Acts;
These agreements were most effective form of protest against British policies in the colonies
Lexington and Concord
First battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston;
The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.
Encampment where George Washington's poorly equipped army spent a wretched, freezing winter;
Hundreds of men died and more than a thousand deserted;
The plight of the starving, shivering soldiers reflected the main weakness of the American army—a lack of stable supplies and munitions.
Runaway slave and leader of the Boston protests that resulted in the "Boston Massacre," in which Attucks was first to die.
Royal governor of Massachusetts during the run-up to the Revolution;
Misjudged colonial zeal during the Tea Act controversy and insisted that East India Company ships unload in Boston Harbor, thereby prompting the Boston Tea Party.
Marquis de Lafayette
French nobleman, nicknamed the "French Gamecock", who served as major general in the colonial army during the American Revolution and aided the newly independent colonies securing French support.
Royal governor of Virginia, who in 1775, promised freedom to runaway slaves who joined the British army.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash colonial rebellion;
They proved good in a mechanical sense, but they were more concerned about booty than duty, meaning, they didn't care which side really won the war.
Wife of President John Adams, had her own opinions about the course of the American Revolution and urged her husband to take the needs and rights of women into .consideration in the construction of the new government.
Benjamin Franklin - role in the Revolution
Became a leading revolutionary and signatory of the Declaration of Independence;
During the War, Franklin served as commissioner to France charged with securing France's support to the American cause;
Helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris.
George Washington - role in the Revolution and after
Washington was initially a military leader in the French and Indian War who pulled his small force back into Fort Necessity where he was overwhelmed by the French;
He was the commander of Virginia's frontier troops as a colonel;
Later, he was Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution;
His greatest achievements during the Revolutionary War were: (1) his surprise victory at Trenton, (2) holding the army together at Valley Forge, and (3) his major victory at Yorktown;
He became the first president of the United States when he took office on Apr. 30, 1789 in New York City.
Howe was the English general who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill;
Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress;
At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
Green was a colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century;
He used the fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue him for miles, biding his time and waiting for the chance to make a move.;
The significance was that he helped clear Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.
Was an American General during the Revolutionary War;
He prevented the British from reaching Ticonderoga and thus delayed the British assault on New York;
Later, in 1778, he tried to help the British take West Point and the Hudson River but he was found out and declared a traitor.
Was a British general that submitted a plan for invading New York state from Canada;
He was then given charge of the army;
Though defeated, he advanced troops near Lake Champlain to the Albany area;
Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga - the battle that helped to bring France into the war as an ally for the United States and is called one of the decisive battles of history.
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Was a British general who fought in the Seven Years War, was elected to the House of Commons in 1760, and lost battles to George Washington;
Cornwallis made his mark on history, even though he could never ensure an overall British win over the Americans - he had many individual victories and losses against the Americans in the American Revolution and will always be remembered as a great and powerful general.
Paine was a passionate and persuasive writer who published the bestseller, Common Sense in 1776;
Paine had the radical idea that the colonies should set up America as an independent, democratic, republic away from England;
Over 120,000 copies of his pamphlet were sold and this helped spark the colonists' call for independence later that year.
Barry St. Leger
Barry St. Leger was a British officer in the American Revolutionary War;
He led a British advance into New York's Mohawk Valley in the summer of 1777;
Hoping to join the British army of General John Burgoyne at Albany, St. Leger was halted by American militia at Fort Stanwix;
His forces were nearly destroyed while repelling an American relief unit at Oriskany, and the approach of additional American troops forced St. Leger to retreat to Canada.
George Rogers Clark
Clark was a frontiersman who led the seizing of 3 British forts in 1777 along the Ohio River;
This later led to the British giving the region north of the Ohio River to the United States.
Richard Henry Lee
He was a member of Philadelphia's Continental Congress during the late 1770's;
On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states";
This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to peaceful British relations.
Started in the English army and worked his way up through the ranks;
Later, during the revolution, he turned sides and was appointed to take charge of the Continental army of the North;
One of Gates' accomplishments was his victory at Saratoga;
His career in the army ended when he lost to General Charles Cornwallis in Camden, SC.
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships;
He was a daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman who helped destroy British merchant ships;
He brought war into the water and surprisingly had success there against the British.
He was a member of the House of Burgesses, wrote the Declaration of Independence, was ambassador to France, and was the third president of the United States of America;
He as chosen to write the Declaration of Independence because of his penmanship;
With his Declaration of Independence, he declared the colonies' freedom from England;
While president, he bought the Louisiana Purchase and had Lewis and Clark explore it.
Admiral de Grasse
Admiral de Grasse operated a powerful French fleet in the West Indies;
He advised America that he was free to join with them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown;
Rochambeau's French army defended the British by land and Admiral de Grasse blockaded them by sea;
This resulted in Cornwallis's surrender.
Was a fiery lawyer during Revolutionary War times;
Supporting a break from Great Britain, he is famous for the words, "...give me liberty, or give me death!" which concluded a speech given to the Virginia Assembly in 1775;
This quote is a symbol of American patriotism still today;
After the American Revolution, Henry served two terms as governor of Virginia and was also instrumental in the development of the Bill of Rights.
Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of 6,000 troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco-American attack on New York.
John Jay was the First Chief Justice of the United States, and also an American statesman and jurist;
Elected to the Continental Congress, he also helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain, ending the American Revolution;
Serving as governor of New York state from 1795 to 1801, he was an advocate of a strong national government;
Appointed by Washington, Jay negotiated a settlement with Britain to settle the threat of war called Jay's Treaty;
He was also known for helping Alexander Hamilton and James Madison write the series of articles known as "The Federalist Papers."
A mercenary is a person hired for service in the army of a foreign country;
For example, in the late 1760's George III hired German soldiers (Hessians) to fight in the British army against Americans
Natural Rights theory
The theory that people are born with certain "natural rights," (unalienable) rights which cannot be taken away;
Jefferson, in the Declaration of Independence, said these included the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Privateers were privately owned armed ships specifically authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping and smuggle in needed supplies;
There were over a thousand American privateers who responded to the call of patriotism and profit;
The privateers brought in urgently needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised American morale.
2nd Continental Congress
The congress met in Philadelphia with three new delegates - Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock;
The Congress took on governmental duties and united all the colonies for the war effort;
They selected George Washington as commander of the army;
They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states;
On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence;
The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.
A pamphlet written in 1776 by Thomas Paine that was one of the most potent publications ever;
It called for the colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England;
The author, Thomas Paine, introduced ideas such as the fact that nowhere in the universe does a smaller heavenly body control a larger one - for this reason there was no reason for England to have control over the vast lands of America;
The pamphlet was high-class journalism as well as propaganda and sold a total of 120,000 copies within a few months.
Declaration of Independence
Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776;
This "shout heard round the world" has been a source of inspiration to countless revolutionary movements against arbitrary authority;
The document sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the revolution by allowing England to finally "hear" of the colonists' disagreements with British authority.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty between Britain and the colonies formally ending the Revolutionary War;
The British formally recognized the independence of the United States;
It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi River on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south;
The Americans promised to restore Loyalist property and repay debts to British creditors.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though at a heavy cost to the British.
Olive Branch Petition
Conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to hostilities;
King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Declaration of rights adopted during the French Revolution; modeled after the American Declaration of Independence
American colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the king; sometimes referred to as "Tories."
Colonists who supported the American Revolution; they were also known as "Whigs."
Battle of Long Island
Battle for the control of New York; British troops overwhelmed the colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war.
Battle of Trenton
George Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping German Hessians, raising the morale of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later.
Battle of Saratoga
Decisive colonial victory in upstate New York, which helped secure French support for the Revolutionary cause
Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats;
Reflected the American's desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
Treaty signed by the US and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans.
Battle of Yorktown
George Washington with t.he aid of the French army, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, while the French naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore;
Cornwallis surrendered, dealing a heavy blow to the British war effort and paving the way for an eventual peace
Mohawk chief and An.glican convert who sided with the British during the Revolutionary War, believing that only a British victory could halt American westward expansion
Revolutionary War officer who, along wi.th Benedict Arnold, fought British and Indian forces in frontier New York and Vermont
Irish-born British .army veteran who served as a general in the Continental army during the Revolution; joined Benedict Arnold in a failed attempt to seize Quebec
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