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Praxis 2 Social Studies (0081) Sociology / Anthropology / Psychology

praxis 2 high school social studies set, Sociology / Anthropology / Psychology
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Social mobility
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
Social Stratification
One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
Socialization
The lifelong process by which people learn their culture and develop a sense of self.
Primary Groups
Social groups, such as family or friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved, groups that provide members with a sense of belonging and affection.
Secondary Groups
Groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end)., groups that meet principally to solve problems
Folkways
Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture, norms for routine or casual interaction.
Mores
The conventions that embody the fundamental values of a group, norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
Beliefs
Specific ideas that people hold to be true
Group Norms
Are rules that are designed to govern the behavior of the members. Are intended to integrate the actions of the group members. Are to reflect the appropriate behavior, attitudes, and perceptions of the the members. "Conformity and compliance are two intended purposes of instituting this in groups., guidelines that regulate how members act as well as how they interact with each other.
Values
Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something).
Laws
Enforceable rules of conduct in a society.
Conformity
Acting according to certain accepted standards, adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Deviance
A state or condition markedly different from the norm, behavior that departs from societal or group norms
Role
The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group.
Positive Sanctions
Social approval for observing a norm, a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize.
Negative Sanctions
Social disapproval for violating a norm, a punishment or threat of a punishment to promote conformity to norms.
Institutions
The rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior, thereby shaping politics, organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake.
Group
Any number of entities (members) considered as a unit
Norms
Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members, shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
Status
A person's condition or position in the eyes of the law; relative rank or standing, especially in society; prestige
Networks
A set of informal and formal social ties that links people to each other.
Social Solidarity
The state of having shared beliefs and values among members of a social group, along with intense and frequent interaction among group members.
Conflict
A state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests, an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals).
Multicultural diversity
Unique characteristics of ethics groups
Ethnocentrism
Tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups, belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
Sterotypes
A generalization,oversimplified view or opinion that members of a group rigidly apply to a thing,an idea,or another group.
Biases
An inclination for or against a person, place, idea or thing that inhibits impartial judgment., a prejudice towards one particular point of view or ideology.
Ideals
Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something), a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard.
Cultural Relativity
The recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their environments, the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place.
Prejudice
A partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation, an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts.
Pluralism
The doctrine that reality consists of several basic substances or elements.
Archaeology
Study of artifacts and relics of early mankind, the study of the remains of past cultures.
Antropology
Scientific study of humankind in all its aspects, especially human evolution, development, and culture, Studying the orgins and development of people and their society.
Physical Anthroplogy
Systematic study of humans and biological organisms
Cultural Anthroplogy
It is the branch of anthropology that examines culture as a meaningful scientific concept.
Enculturation
The process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.
Social Stratification
One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
Subcultures
Groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture.
Dominant Cultures
Values, customs, and language established by the group or groups that traditionally have controlled politics and government in a society.
Cognitive Theory
Psychological perspective that focuses on mental processes: how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and solve-problems.
Behavioral Psychology
A branch of psychology that focuses on observable actions, particularly stimulus-response methods.
Humanistic Psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
Abnormal Psychology
The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis, 1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms, psychoanalysis, transference.
Transference
The process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another (psychoanalysis).
Carl Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Jean Piaget
1896-1980; Swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations
Ivan Pavlov
A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning.
B.F. Skinner
Pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. He is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats., Studied observable behaviors rather than thought - reinforcement - rewarding good behavior.
Erik Erickson
Developmental Psychology: Psychosocial stage theory of development (eight stages)
Identity crisis
Distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society.
Perception
Becoming aware of something via the senses
Social Cognition
Mental processes associated with people's perceptions of, and reactions to, other people.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Classical Conditioning
A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus.
Identity Formation
Erikson; stage of adolescence where teens are to develop a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on other to dependence on oneself
Schizophrenia
Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities (Most common psychologoical disorder in the United States).
Utopias
Reformers founded these ideal communities to realize their spiritual and moral potential and to escape from competition, communities designed to create perfect societies.
Reactionary Groups
Refers to viewpoints that seek to return to a previous state (the status quo ante) in a society. The term is meant to stand in opposition to and as one end of a political spectrum whose opposite pole is "radicalism".
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another.
Culture Clash
Is experienced when an individual experiences conflict between the beliefs, values and expectations of their primary culture and a new culture in which they must function.
Deindividualism
Abandoning normal restraints to the power of the group, doing together what we would not do alone
Prosocial Behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
Pluralistic Ignorance
A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
Ascribed Status
Social position a person receives at birth or involuntarily later in life
Split Brain
A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them. Research states that the left hemisphere is responsible for spoken language.
Sensitive Development Period
Critical Period in development is a period of time which an organism typically needs to be exposed to a particular stimulus in order for proper development to occur.
Correlational Research
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together. One advantage is that it helps psychologists make predictions.
Negative Reinforcement
Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs. This technique is used to increase the frequency of behavior.
Habituation
A general accommodation to unchanging environmental conditions, decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
Punishment
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Serial-Position Effect
A term coined by Hermann Ebbinghaus, refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a study list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect). Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy effect).