90 terms

Western Civ I Term Exam

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Linear A
Minoan form of writing that as of yet we have been unsuccessful at decoding.
Direct Democracy
the type of governing system where all people vote directly on an issue
Polis
a city-state of ancient Greece
Phalanx
a military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to carrying pikes or heavy spears
Democracy
a government run by the people
Hellenism
the blending of Greek cultures with those Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Acropolis
a walled, high area at the center of the polis
Pericles
a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He oversaw the construction of the Parthenon.
Socrates
Greek philosopher of Athens; his teaching style was based on asking question. He wanted people to question their own beliefs. He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority.
Aristotle
Greek philosopher and student of Plato; he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry; his work later became the basis for medieval scholasticism.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia; he is considered one of the greatest generals of all time
Helots
in Ancient Greece, state slaves
Homer
Greek poet; he wrote the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, which tell stories set during and after the Trojan War
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and inventor; he was known for his work in geometry, physics, and mechanics...worked to explain the use of levers to move objects as well as developed the block-and-tackle pulley system.
Plato
Greek philosopher; a student of Socrates, he started a school in Athens called the Academy
Hoplites
foot soldiers of ancient Greece
Zeus
King of the Greek gods of Olympus
Hannibal
Carthaginian general during the 2nd Punic War. He crossed the Alps with war elephants and waged war against Rome for 17 years before returning to Carthage to fight Scipio at Zama.
Romulus and Remus
The twin brothers who founded Rome.
Scipio
Roman general who defeated Hannibal at Zama.
Julius Caesar
Member of the 1st Triumvirate...emerged as Dictator for Life. Was assassinated on the Ides of March.
Augustus
Was part of the 2nd Triumvirate...he was Caesar's nephew and adopted son. Caesar's choice to be the heir. Title he was given upon becoming Emperor of Rome...means "the revered one".
Nero
Legend has it that he "fiddled" while Rome burned...he was the last of the Julio-Claudian Emperors.
Hadrian
One of the Good Emperors...famous for building a wall across England.
Virgil
authored the Roman epic the Aeneid
Jesus of Nazareth
The Messiah of the newly created Christian faith.
Constantine
Roman Emperor who converted to Christianity and moved capital to another city
Republic
government where the power is given to representatives elected by the people
Patricians
The upper class in Rome
Plebeians
they were Roman citizens that were not a part of the upper class
Pax Romana
200 year period of peace in Rome.
the Forum
The heart of the city of Rome...meeting place, markets.
Aqueduct
A structure that carries water over long distances...provided Rome with a more than adequate water supply.
Punic Wars
Series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage that ended with Rome CRUSHING Carthage
Roman Legions
a unit of 3,000-6,000 men in the ancient Roman army. the backbone of their military
Colosseum
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place...built by Emperor Vespasian
Causes for the fall of Rome...
-Invasions by Barbarian tribes
-Economic troubles and over-reliance on slave labor
-The rise of the Eastern Empire
-Over-expansion and military overspending
-Government corruption and political instability
-The Huns
-Christianity and loss of traditional values
-Weakening of the Legions
Pantheon
one of the most famous buildings in Rome dedicated to planetary gods.
Via Appia (Appian Way)
was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
Byzantine Empire
the society that developed in the eastern Roman Empire after the west fell...thrived for more than a thousand years before falling to the Ottomans in 1453.
Justinian I
First great leader of the Byzantine empire. Ended the Nika Revolt, Justinian's Code, Built Hagia Sophia
Corpus Juris Civilis
Body of civil law, massive collection of laws, legal writings and handbooks for students...contained four parts: Codex, Digests, Institutes, and Novel
Ottoman Turks
Defeated and took Constantinople in 1453, bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire
Hagia Sophia
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
Cyrillic Alphabet
Alphabet created for the Slavic languages by Byzantine Missionaries
Genghis Khan
Founder of the Mongol Empire. He and his followers wreaked havoc on Eastern Europeans during his reign.
Anglo-Saxons
a group of Germanic warriors who invaded Britain in the 400s and established seven small kingdoms.
Alfred the Great
The first great king of England...united the Seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to drive out the Danes.
St. Patrick
one of the most famous missionaries of the Middle Ages...famous for the conversion of the Irish to Christianity
Vikings
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia.
Charlemagne
Powerful Frankish ruler who built a huge empire. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognized emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier.
Leif Eriksson
1st Viking or European (with his dad) to reach North America (Nova Scotia, Canada).
Magyars
nomadic people who overran Eastern Europe and parts of Western Europe after A.D. 900...nomadic raiders who were skilled horsemen. Eventually settled in the region of Hungary.
Muslims
Attack Europe in early 700s from North Africa. They would rule the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) for more than 700 years. Their conquest of France was stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.
Feudal System
A system of trading loyalties for protection in the Middle Ages.
Knights
Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who invaded England in 1066 and claimed the English crown.
Magna Carta
A written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.
Crusades
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims over control of the Holy Lands
Pope Urban II
Medieval pope, he called on Christians to launch the First Crusade
Trade Fair
Popular places where merchants would set up booths and sell goods
flying buttress
an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers some of the weight of the vault
illumination
The artistic decoration of books and manuscripts
Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Thomas Aquinas
An Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism...attempts to reconcile faith and reason.
heresy
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established church doctrine
Hundred Years' War
long dispute over French throne between France and England that lasted 116 years
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who led the French to victory over the English at Orleans in 1429.
Black Death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
Renaissance
a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history...a rebirth or revival
Leonardo da Vinci
The renaissance artist who is known for his painting The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
Michelangelo
Painted the Sistine Chapel and created the statue David.
Johannes Gutenberg
German inventor who invented the movable type printing press
Sir Thomas More
English statesman and author; he wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society
William Shakespeare
Most important figure of English Renaissance literature
Protestant Reformation
Protested the papal abuses; protested indulgences
Martin Luther
German monk, questioned the Roman Catholic Church, was excommunicated. Wrote the 95 theses
John Calvin
Protestant reformer who believed in predestination...the theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
King Henry VIII
king and protestant reformer of England, head of the Anglican church...
had 6 wives and broke away from the church for personal reasons bc he wanted a son
Queen Elizabeth I
other daughter of Henry VIII that took reign after Mary; Protestant, completed the separation with Roman Catholics, firmly establishing the Church of England.
Prince Henry the Navigator
A patron of those who wished to explore, he established a court for sailors, mapmakers, astronomers, and others interested in navigation.
Christopher Columbus
Believed he could reach Asia by sailing west rather than east.
Amerigo Vespucci
It was his expedition that showed Columbus had not made it to the Indies, but rather a new land.
Ferdinand Magellan
His crew became the first to circumnavigate the globe.
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador; from 1519-1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530-1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect Native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves.
Columbian Exchange
The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus.
mercantilism
An economic system used from about 1500s to the 1700s that held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth.
Middle Passage
The name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
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