How do human-built nuclear power plants on Earth generate energy?
Hydrogen fusion in the Sun requires a temperature (in Kelvin) of
millions of degrees.
At the center of the Sun, fusion converts hydrogen into
helium, energy, and neutrinos.
Suppose you put two protons near each other. Because of the electromagnetic force, the two protons will
repel each other
The overall fusion reaction by which the Sun currently produces energy is
4 H ? 1 He + energy.
Why must the Sun's rate of fusion gradually rise over billions of years?
Fusion reactions decrease the overall number of particles in the core, causing the core to shrink, converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy, and increasing the rate of fusion.
Studies of sunquakes, or helioseismology, have revealed that
our mathematical models of the solar interior are fairly accurate
Which statement best describes the solar neutrino problem?
Solar neutrinos have been detected, but in fewer numbers than predicted by theoretical models.
What is a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem?
The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that we do not detect
The light radiated from the Sun's surface reaches Earth in about 8 minutes, but the energy of that light was released by fusion in the solar core about
a million years ago.
What happens to energy in the convection zone of the Sun?
Energy is transported outward by the rising of hot plasma and the sinking of cooler plasma.
Which of the following statements about the sunspot cycle is not true?
The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years.
Approximately, what basic composition are all stars born with?
three-quarters hydrogen, one-quarter helium, no more than 2 percent heavier elements
Since all stars begin their lives with the same basic composition, what characteristic most determines how they will differ?
mass they are formed with
A star's luminosity is the
total amount of light that the star radiates each second
If the distance between us and a star is doubled, with everything else remaining the same, the luminosity
remains the same, but the apparent brightness is decreased by a factor of four.
Suppose you measure the parallax angle for a particular star to be 0.1 arcsecond. The distance to this star is
Suppose that you measure the parallax angle for a particular star to be 0.5 arcsecond. The distance to this star is
The spectral sequence sorts stars according to
The spectral sequence in order of decreasing temperature is
Suppose you see two main-sequence stars of the same spectral type. Star 1 is dimmer in apparent brightness than Star 2 by a factor of 100. What can you conclude? (Neglect any effects that might be caused by interstellar dust and gas.)
Star 1 is 10 times more distant than Star 2.
Which of the following terms is given to a pair of stars that we can determine are orbiting each other only by measuring their periodic Doppler shifts?
Which of the following best describes the axes of a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram?
surface temperature on the horizontal axis and luminosity on the vertical axis
On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that are cool and dim?
On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that have the largest radii?
On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where on the main sequence would we find stars that have the greatest mass?
On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find red giant stars?
You observe a star in the disk of the Milky Way, and you want to plot the star on an H-R diagram. You will need to determine all of the following, except the
rotation rate of the star.
On the main sequence, stars obtain their energy
by converting hydrogen to helium
A star of spectral type O lives approximately how long on the main sequence?
1 million years
A star of spectral type G lives approximately how long on the main sequence?
10 billion years
Why are Cepheid variables so important for measuring distances in astronomy?
Their luminosity can be inferred from their period.
Which of the following statements about an open cluster is true?
All stars in the cluster are approximately the same age.