How has educational reform in the U.S. exemplified Einstein's definition of madness?
Education reform has been doing the same thing over the past thirty years and been expecting different results.
What is the failed theory of U.S. teacher quality?
It is more based off of competition over collaboration.
Why does a moral obligation to students matter?
Each student's well-being and ultimately happiness arises from knowledge, skills and worldviews that good education provides.
Why can an educated nation not be created by force?
Education needs to be wanted, not just needed. It also takes time to create a good education. Acknowledge that teachers and students must be heard and that the way forward must be collaboration.
What must educational transformation be grounded in?
Research, collaboration by academics, policy makers, principals and teachers.
How do tougher competition, more data, and corporate management models affect learning?
It does not suggest that any of these are good models of affective learning. Negatively.
What are the key commonalities among successful education systems?
Improving teaching force, limit student testing to minimum, placing responsibility and trust before accountability, investing in equity in education, and handing school jobs to experienced education professionals.
What is the single reason education systems fail?
There is no single reason education systems fail. There is a network of interrelated factors--educational, political, and cultural.
Being a relatively small nation situated between much larger powers has taught Finns to do what?
Accept existing realities and take chances with available opportunities.
What have become the hallmarks of Finnish culture?
Diplomacy, cooperation, problem-solving and seeking consensus.
How have the hallmarks of Finnish culture affected Finnish education policy?
This is the basis for their education that they follow by. All traits play an important role in the education system.
How is the philosophy of Peruskoulu different from the U.S. compulsory education?
Every Finn gets the same education for the first 8 years, unlike Americans who get categorized from elementary school on.
The form and content of Finnish curriculum focuses on what?
Reading and literacy.
The roots of Finland's educational reform grew from what political arrangement?
Post WWII Finland put into action a plan first proposed in 1920 providing universal access and unified curriculum.
Finnish comprehensive school curriculum emphasizes the primacy of what?
To make students want to become holistic and want to further their education. The contents were grouped into five thematic, cross-curricular areas.
Finnish curriculum reform was grounded in what?
Grounded in empirical studies involving lots of data and research.
How is social cohesion, as emphasized in the Finnish education system, correlated with academic success for Finnish students?
Once all students have the same opportunities they will be able to learn at a higher level. Leveling SES among students.
What does it mean that peruskoulu is trackless?
They do not rank their students so they can't be categorized.
How have Finnish PISA scores fared since the implementation of one curriculum and one syllabus for all peruskoulu students?
They have been at the top five. All have improved.
Finnish comprehensive school required teachers to employ which pedagogies?
Required that they had to work in the same schools with students with disabilities.
Overall graduation rates in Finland are internationally high, with more than which percent of students graduating from upper secondary school?
What percent of U.S. students graduate upper secondary school?
What's the format of the high stakes exam that Finnish students take to enter higher education?
Student competency of mother tongue, chooses three additional tests from second domestic language, foreign language, math and one test from humanities and science. Students have 6 hours to complete each exam.
What ruins education reform?
Rushing it is to ruin it.
According to the PISA exam, Finland has been one of the highest performing nations in which academic area(s)?
In all areas on the exam (science, math, literacy)
What has the Finnish education system not been infected by?
Market-based education reform models.
What has the education community in Finland remained unconvinced of?
That globally fashionable directions in improving education would be good in Finnish schools.
What is the ultimate success of a high-stakes testing policy?
There is no ultimate success.
What was assumed very early in Finland's reform process to be key in what makes a difference in what students learn?
Ability to reach broad consensus on most major issues concerning future directions for Finland.
Who receives free, healthy lunch in all comprehensive Finnish schools?
What is happening when everybody thinks the same way?
If everyone thinks the same way, nobody thinks very much.
What is the key lesson from Finland?
Build your own education, don't just follow Finland or the models put out there by others.
What is the average school life expectancy in Finland?
How does Finnish university tuition compare with UMD tuition?
Finland is free, UMD is not.
What has the achievement gap done in Finnish schools since ability grouping was abolished?
It's decreased by a lot.
What percentage of Finnish students who complete their compulsory education at age 16 have participated in special education programming?
How do Finnish between-school variances in PISA reading scales compare to the average OECD score of between-school variances?
6% compared to 18-30%.
What do between-school variances relate to and measure?
High equity and equality.
How does Finnish teaching time compare to other OECD teacher time?
Less teaching time, more teacher collaboration among teachers within their fields. Proposes more time for learning in unsupervised environments.
What what is the definition of a singularity?
When our understanding changed.
1. What singularity did Williams discover in "Stitches?"
She got her hair caught in a sewing machine and her teacher individually removed each hair while simultaneously teaching multiple classes.
Well defined learning targets reduce the effect of which variables?
Reduces the effect of not knowing where to go.
What do we need to help teachers unmask, confront, and see past?
Have teachers see past their bad experiences and only bring their good ones to the students.
What does Williams ask teachers to recognize and exercise?
Build on experiences that made us stronger and better. Learn from the bad experiences.
What is at risk when we are afraid to question our own theories?
If we don't question them, they will cripple, blind and danger us.
What do schools create and make students compete for and artificial scarcity of?
Make students compete to have success, and this is just a narrow margin of people.
What is the moral dilemma that she faced in "Dancing Snowmen?"
She faced the dilemma in deciding if she should just walk past the snowmen and carry a bag of guilt, or doing something about it to help students get a better education.
What is there a "real tonnage of guilt wrapped up in?"
The choice of fight or flight.
What happens when students experience failure after failure?
They tune out, fall off the ladder and don't give any more effort.
What must we pull the ladder out from under?
We must pull the ladder out from under itself and stop ranking our children.
What happens when we don't provide opportunities and challenges to our little ones--asking them to share and reach out?
When they become adults their choices will be limited because of fear and unknowns.
What is the consequence of us staying within our own circles with our doors shut?
Our children will be arrogant.
"If we are ever to see change in the world," explained Williams, how will that change take place?
One child, one teacher, and one legislator at a time.
What should a suitcase of privilege be matched up with?
One suitcase of responsibility.
Williams assumed a colleague coach was passing his players for athletic eligibility, when in fact he was doing so for what other stated purpose?
He wanted them to pass so they could get cultured and have more life experience under their belts.
What is the relationship between education myths and believers' self interests?
The myth benefits the believer.
"Many of the myths you encounter," serve which two ends that advantage the white middle class?
Cut the cost of schooling and segregate schools.
What is the civil rights issue of our time?
To stop unproven, so called education reforms from totally destroying our children's public education and take it back from politicians.
Berliner and Glass discuss how bureaucrats and for-profits have taken over schools. What do they say the general public should do about that?
Take it back
Discussions of better education systems need to be informed by which questions?
Poverty rates among students, and on what criteria other schools are better by.
What does the PISA measure?
Measures reading, science, math literacy among 15 year old students.
What does the TIMSS measure?
Evaluates math and science achievements among 4th and 8th grade students.
The U.S. leads the world in which two performance levels on international standardized tests?
The number of the highest and number of lowest performing students taking the international tests.
1. What is relationship between child poverty rate and standardized test scores?
Child poverty rate and test scores are that the more impoverished the child, the shittier their test score.
Why are individuals such as Bill Gates and Michelle Rhee capitalizing on the "dismal" international test results?
To promote unproven school reforms.
What factors contribute to private schools outperforming public schools on the NAEP?
They can choose the best SES students to accept into their schools.
What is a "publicly funded, quasi-privately operated school...providing parents with more control over their children's education while also reforming traditional public schools"?
How do charter schools influence enrollment to attract and retain students from higher socioeconomic backgrounds?
They tell anybody with special abilities that the school wouldn't be the best fit. They also try to only get the highest performers from public schools and thus resegregate schools.
What is the effect of charter schools requiring some type of parental involvement such as 20 volunteer hours per school year?
Most low-income parents can't put in the time to do this. Another way of segregating the schools.
What did Brown v. Board of Education, 1954, proclaim about public education?
Public Education cannot be segregated.
What percent of academic performance differences can be attributed to factors other than school?
Student achievement is most strongly associated with which variables?
Socioeconomic status, neighborhood, language and language complexity, psychologically and physically healthy environment, and access to books, games and activities to prepare them for schools.
What is the effect of the illusion of "doing something."
Allow many politicians and citizens to close their eyes to the larger social and economic problems that affects schools.
How is Race to the Top reflective of the illusion of "doing something"
It is only evaluating teachers by student's achievements on standardized tests and not taking into affect all the other factors.
How does US teacher pay compare with other industrialized nations?
It is very low.
How has NCLB affected the achievement gap between poor and wealthy students?
Hasn't affected the achievement gap.
How has merit pay affected collaboration between teachers?
Teachers don't want each other to succeed so they don't get paid less than their coworkers. More of a competition to get teachers to do better.
How is teacher collaboration correlated with quality teaching and learning?
The more the teachers collaborate, the better they can teach and the better their students can do.
In matters of merit pay and other academic competitions, what has to happen for someone to win?
In order for someone to win, other people have to lose.