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48 terms

Human Geography AP Exam Review

absolute distance
a distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or a kilometer
human-induced changes on the natural environment
azimuthal projection
a map projection in which the plane is the most development
breaking point
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies
Carl Sauer
Geographer from the University of California at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.
a type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
choropleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as averages values per unit area
the actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
contagious diffusion
the spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
cultural ecology
the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments in which they live
cultural landscape
the human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
dot maps
thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
Earth System Science
a systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between Earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale
the head librarian at Alexandria during the third century BC; one of the first cartographers; remarkably accurate computation of Earth's circumference; coined term geography
friction of distance
measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
actual shape of Earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; diameter longer around equator
gravity model
mathematical formula that describes the level interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of particular place
intervening opportunities
proximity wins out when two places have the same product for the same cost
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
horizontal; parallels
law of retail gravitation
law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding hinterlands
location charts
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information about a particular political unit or jurisdiction
vertical; Prime Meridian
George Perkins Marsh
provided first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions
Mercator projection
accurate direction, famous for area distortion at the poles
line of longitude that runs north-south; all line of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
concepts or rules that can be applied universally
east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
perceptual region
highly individualized definition of regions based on perceived commonalities in culture and landscape
Peters Projection
equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally
preference map
map that displays individual preferences for certain places
proportional symbols map
thematic map in which the size of the chosen symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Roman geographer-astronomer, author of Guide to Geography, which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude
qualitative data
data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives
quantitative data
data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
quantitative revolution
period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques
reference map
shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigation
relative distance
measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places; often describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places
map's smallest discernible unit
Robinson projection
projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors; does not maintain area, shape, distance, or direction completely accurately, but it minimizes errors in each
sense of place
feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place
spatial perspective
intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of a specific phenomenon, how and why that phenomenon is where it is, and finally how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places
topographic maps
use isolines to represent constant elevations
topological space
amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them
costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive
W.D. Pattison
claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions; the earth-science tradition, culture-environment tradition, locational tradition, and area-analysis tradition