Earth Science Exam 1 (chapter 1)
Terms in this set (56)
the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand earth and its neighbors in space
what sciences does earth science include?
geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy
-study of the earth
examines the materials composing earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate beneath and upon its surface
understanding the origin of earth and the development of the planet through its 4.6 billion year history
involves the application of all sciences in a comprehensive and interrelated study of the oceans in all their aspects and relationships
the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate
the study of the universe
the span of time since the formation of earth
well tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts
-a question is raised about the natural world
-scientific data that relate to the question are collected
-questions that relate to the data are posed, and one or more working hypotheses are developed that may answer these questions
-observations and experiments are developed to test the hypothesis
-the hypotheses are accepted, modified, or rejected, based on extensive testing
-data and results are shared with the scientific community for critical experimentation and further testing
proposes that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula
dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating the land, and running back to the ocean again
life giving gaseous envelope
all life on earth
-lies beneath the atmosphere and the ocean
-largest of the earth's four spheres
early in earth's history, when the planet was very hot, the sorting of material by compositional differences resulted in the formation of three layers
what is the early divided into layers based on?
-earth's thin, rocky outer skin
-7 kilometers thick
-composed of dark igneous rock (basalt)
-homogenous chemical composition
-average composition of granodiorite
-82% of the earth's volume is contained in the mantle
-solid, rocky shell that extends to a depth of nearly 2900 kilometers
-the dominant rock in the upper most mantle is peridotite
consists of the entire crust and uppermost mantle and forms earth's relatively cool, rigid outer shell
soft, comparatively weak layer
iron-nickel alloy with minor amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur
-movement of metallic iron within this zone that generates the earth's magnetic field
-higher temperature than outer layer
provided geologists with the first comprehensive model of earth's internal workings
what are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and history geology?
historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface
the study of the earths atmosphere is known as
which science is not used within earth sciences?
earth science makes use of
oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of the earth, so what is meteorology?
the study of the atmosphere
sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest. Which scientist would make the most use of this observation in their study?
geologist because of their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to earth history
hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters. What branch of the earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?
hurricanes are natural disasters. which branch of the earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?
tsunamis and earthquakes have killed millions of people during human history. what branch of the earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?
if you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?
the earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old. life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago. If the history of earth were compressed into a single year, when would metazoans appear?
which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?
chemical refining of petroleum
climate change is a well-known human problem and remains controversial despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue. although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?
a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography
the primary goal of earth science is
identify patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future
which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?
there must be an alternative hypothesis proposed
explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles
in the television series "cosmos" the astronomer carl sagan used to say, "we are all made of star stuff." what did he mean by that?
all of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars
In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. as they collided, what happened to these bodies?
immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat
light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen. why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?
these light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind
comets are made up primarily of
what does the exchange of energy between the surface of earth and atmosphere cause?
continental shields and platforms represent
areas in the interior of continents that haven't experienced mountain building for billions of years
what two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of the earth?
a major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is
a mineralogist studies minerals and their origins, a mineralogist studying the earth system would
-study how minerals influence organisms living on them
-how they react with water to produce soil forming minerals
-study how wind transports minerals
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