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Training & Development
Terms in this set (46)
Instructional System Design model (ISD)
A process for designing and developing training programs.
-Not one universally accepted model
-Also known as the ADDIE model
Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation
Training Design Process
1)Conducting Needs Assessment
2)Ensuring Employees' Readiness for Training
-Attitudes and motivation
-Creating a Learning Environment
-Community of learning
4)Ensuring Transfer of Training
-Peer and manager
5)Developing an Evaluation Plan
-Identify learning outcomes
-Choose evaluation design
-Plan cost-benefit analysis
6)Selecting Training Method
7)Monitoring and Evaluating the Program
-Make Changes to Improve the Program
Regardless of the specific ISD approach used, all share the following assumptions:
-Training design is only effective only if it helps employees reach instructional or training goals or objectives.
-Measurable learning objectives should be identified before the training program begins.
-Evaluation plays an important part in planning and choosing a training method, monitoring the training program, and suggesting changes to the training design process.
Flaws of ISD Model:
-The training design process rarely follows the neat, orderly, step-by-step approach of activities.
-In trying to standardize their own ISD method used in the training function, some orgs require trainers to provide detailed documents of each activity found in the model. This adds time and cost to developing a training program.
-The ISD implies at end point: evaluation. However, evaluation should be constant.
-Some companies may claim to use the model but dilute its application.
The planned effort by a company to facilitate learning of job-related competencies, knowledge, skills, and behaviors by employees.
Goal of training
For employees to master the knowledge, skills, and behaviors emphasized in training and apply them to their day-to-day activities.
The process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge. Includes two types of knowledge: tactic and explicit
Self-directed, intentional, and field based behaviors and activities used to acquire knowledge and skills that occur outside of formally-designated learning contexts.
-No trainer or instructor
-breadth, depth, and timing of learning is controlled by the employee
-occurs on an as-needed basis
-about 75% of learning occurs informally
-there is a need for informal learning
-leads to tacit knowledge
reading on the internet
"water cooler" knowledge
online social networks
lunch and learns
Personal knowledge based on individual experiences that is difficult to codify.
Knowledge that is well documented, easily articulated, and easily transferred from person to person.
*tends to be the focus of formal training and employee development
Companies should implement knowledge sharing systems so that knowledge is readily available to all employees. For example, a company can develop an internet and social networking system for their employees to provide access to company materials, announcements, policies, training manuals, operational and support tools and best practice forums. These types of sharing systems allow employees to to gain both explicit and tacit knowledge by giving them a space to ask questions, distribute information and provide space for reference material.
*focused on current job
*prepare for future roles
Knowledge Management Char.
*user generated content
*community of practice
Informal Learning Char.
*on the job
*learning from others
*asking questions ~75%
The strategic training and development process
1)Identify the Business Strategy
2)Strategic Training and Development Initiatives
3)Training and Development Activities
4)Identify Measures or Metrics that show Value of Training
A plan that integrates the company's goals, policies, and actions and influences how the company uses physical, financial, and human capital.
Five Components of a Business Strategy
*Mission, Vision, Values
*Strategic Choice - the strategy believed to be the best alternative to achieve the company goals
How does the business strategy influence learning?
*Amount and type of learning devoted to current and future job skills
*Customization (employees, units, divisions)
*Who receives training
*Extent to which learning is systematic and planned
*Organization of the learning function and reporting relationships
*Emphasis and resources provided compared to other HRM practices
Strategic training and development initiatives
Are learning-related actions that a company should take to help it achieve its business strategy.
*Diversify the Learning Portfolio
*Improve Customer Service
*Accelerate the Pace of Employee Learning
Questions to Ask to Develop Strategic Training and Development Initiatives
1)What is the vision and mission of the company? 2)What are the strategic drivers of the business strategy?
3)What capabilities does the company need as a result of the strategy and business environmental challenges?
4)What types of training/development are needed for attracting, retaining, and developing the needed talent?
5)Which competencies are critical for company success and the business strategy?
6)Do you have a plan for making the t/d-business strategy link understood by executives, customers, managers, and employees , especially "sponsors"?
7)Will the senior management team publicly support and champion t/d?
8)Do you provide opportunities for both individual t/d but team -related t/d?
Training & Development Activities
Enable the strategic initiatives to be achieved.
*Blended learning (computer-based training and classroom instruction)
*Every ee has a development plan
*Training & Development committee
*Managers trained to coach employees
*Manager promotion evaluation includes employees training progress
Business-level outcomes chosen to measure the overall value of training of learning initiatives.
*measures of employee retention
A business-embedded (BE) learning function
Involves training that aligns closely with the company's business strategy and is characterized by five competencies:
1) strategic direction (clearly described goal and direction to the department, as well as a customer focus that includes customizing the training to meet customer needs and continuously improve program)
2) product design
3) structural versatility
4) product delivery
5) accountability for results
-Tied to Business Strategy
-Trainees and Managers are Customers
*Customized training solutions based on needs
*Build relationships with business unit
*Demonstrates results of training
*Buy-in and involvement facilitates learning and transfer of training
A BE learning function:
*views trainees as customers
*views managers as customers who make decisions to send employees to training
*views senior-level managers as customers who allocate money for training
*has a structure in which all persons who are involved in the training process communicate and share resources
Involves making employees and managers excited about training and learning; is important for the successful adoption of new training programs by helping to overcome resistance to change.
Successful Internal Marketing Tactics:
*Involve the target audience in developing the training or learning effort
*Demonstrate how a training and development program can be used to solve specific business needs
*Showcase an example of how training has been used within the company to solve specific business needs
*Identify a champion who actively supports training
*Listen and act on feedback received from clients, managers and employees
*Advertise on e-mail, on company websites, and in employee break areas
*Designate someone in the training function as an account representative who will interact between the training designer or team and business unit, which is the customer
*Determine what financial numbers-such as return on assets, cash flow from operations, or net profit or loss-top-level executives are concerned with and show how training and development will help improve those numbers
*Speak in terms that employees and managers will understand
*Win a local or national training industry award or recognition
*Publicize learner or manger success stories or feature those who have earned certifications or degrees using newsletters or websites
The look and feeling of the training function that is used to create expectations for its customers; is used to acquire and retain customers.
Process for determining if training is necessary, what should be trained, who should be trained, what methods might be appropriate, level of training.
Involves three components: Org analysis, person analysis, and task analysis
Organizational Analysis (Context)
Involves identifying whether training supports the company's strategic direction; whether managers, peers and employees support training activity and what training resources(time,money & expertise) are available
Questions to ask in this Analysis:
1) How might the training content affect relationship with customers?
2) What do suppliers, customers, or partners need to know about the training program?
3) How does this program align with the needs of the business?
4) Should org resources be devoted to this program?
5) What do we need from managers and peers for training to be successful?
6) What features of the work environment might interfere with training?
7) Do we have "experts" who can help us develop the program content and insure we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program?
8) Will employees perceive the training program as an opportunity? Reward? Punishment? Waste of time?
Person Analysis (Who)
Identifying who needs training.
*determine whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, ability (training issue) or from a motivational or work-design problem
*identifying who needs training
*determine employee readiness for training
Components of a person analysis:
- determining what is responsible for the difference between employees current and expected performance
Readiness for training
- Identifies whether employees have personal characteristics (ability, attitudes, beliefs and motivation) necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job and whether the environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance.
Process for Person Analysis
- Relates to the instructions that tell employees what, how and when to perform and the resources employees are given to help them perform
- Refers to the jobs performance standards
- refer to the type of incentives that employees receive for performing well
- Refers to the information the employees receive while they are performing
These above factors combined all influence the motivation to learn
*Motivation to learn is trainees desire to learn the content of training programs
Task Analysis (What)
Identifies the important tasks and knowledge, skills, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks (What needs to be trained on?)
The employee's work activity in a specific job. To complete tasks, employees must have specific levels of knowledge, skills, abilities other considerations.
Knowledge - facts or procedures
Skill - the competency in performing the task
Ability - the physical and mental capacities to perform the task
Other - conditions under which the tasks are performed
Steps in Task Analysis
1. Select the job or jobs to be analyzed
2. Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job by interviewing and observing expert employees and their managers and talking with others who have performed a task analysis
3. Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks. This step involves having a group of SMEs answer in a meeting or on a written survey several questions regarded in the tasks.
4. Once the tasks have been identified, it is important to identify the knowledge, skills or tasks that are difficult to learn or prone to errors such as decision-making or problem solving tasks
The characteristics of a good learning environment
*Supervisors and coworkers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training
*Task Cues - Characteristics of a trainee's job prompt or remind him or her to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training
*Feedback consequences - Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training
*Lack of punishment - trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training
*Extrinsic reinforcement consequences - Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for not using new skills and behaviors acquired in training
*Intrinsic Reinforcement Consequences - Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training
Training Room environment
*Noise - Check for noise from heating and air conditioning systems, adjacent rooms and corridors and outside from the building
*Colors - Pastel hues such as orange, greens, blues and yellows are warm colors. Variations of white and cold are sterile and black and brown close the room in and become become fatiguing
*Room structure - Use rooms square in shape
*Lighting - The main source of lighting should be fluorescent lights
*Walls and floor covering - Carpeting should be placed in the meeting area. Solid colors are preferable as they are not distracting.
*Chairs should have swivels, wheels and backs that provide support
*Ten foot ceilings are preferable
*Electrical outlets should be available every 6 feet around the room
*Technology - the room should have permanents screens and computer with internet access
The 3 C's
Connect, Contribute, and Cultivate are relevant to Knowledge management when it comes to Collaborating and Sharing knowledge.
Here, we are connecting people in different communities with content, different skills, and information on how to do a specific job.
This is the process of sharing experience, knowledge and ideas.
When individuals add to, comment, debate, contribute to the ideas of others, engage in conversations, and take ideas and apply them in a different context.
Tools for Knowledge Management:
*Technology (web, e-mail, groupware, social network)
*Depositories/Databases (best practices, lessons learned)
*Work Space Designs
*Communities of practice (social media face-to-face)
*Meetings: Brown Bags, Symposium, Project or Patient Reviews, After Action Reviews.
Creating conditions for knowledge sharing
-Training & information technology collaboration
-Create knowledge management leadership position
*navigation of knowledge management site
-Employee trust & willingness to share information
*Why should I share? What's in it for me? (Avoid knowledge hoarding)
*Incentives for sharing
-Metrics for evaluation (Is knowledge management working?)
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