Unit 1: From Molecules to Organisms and Processing
Terms in this set (138)
Since is a quest to understand...
Biology is the study of...
list 5 unifying themes of biology
1. Genes are passed down
2.All living things evolve
3. Cells are the unit of life
4.All living things need energy to survive
5.Homeostasis (regulates external balance)
What is at the heart of science?
What is data?
what are the 2 types of data?
Qualitative and Quantitative
what is Qualitative data?
descriptions in words
what is Quantitative data?
What is an inference?
A logical conclusion based on observations. Observation + Prior knowledge.
What is a hypothesis?
a suggested answer to a well defined scientific question.
a hypothesis must be.... and.....
specific and testable
Put the following steps in order
What are the two outcomes to a hypothesis?
Its either supported or rejected.
What form of science EXPLAINS nature?
What is the difference between an observation and an inference?
An inference includes prior knowledge and an observation does not.
A condition that differs within an experiment is called a...
An experiment that tests the affects of a independent variable is called...
a controlled expirement
what is an independent variable?
The condition that is being manipulated or changed.
what is a dependent variable?
The variable that is measured in an experiment
What is the purpose of controlled experiments?
to eliminate things that might affect the outcome of the experiment
a..... group is not exposed to extra factors
a....group is exposed to extra factors
-a or -an
not, without lacking
the goal of technology is to...
apply scientific understanding for some specific purpose
what are the 3 types of variables
constant, independent, and dependent
In Dna A/Adenine pairs with
in Rna A/Adenine pairs with
C/Cytosine Pairs with
What is the Placebo affect?
Is when a person is benefitted by souley there belief. (were given sugar pills told them it would help them see and the patients report they can see better)
how are the goals of science and technology different?
technology- to apply science
science- to understand science
why is it important to understand DNA?
-Genes (why you look the way you do)
-allergies and illnesses
What are the 4 characteristics of living things?
-Need for energy
-Responds to their environment
what would the segement of Dna look like that codes for lysine
| | |
What would the mRna look like for the amino acid Methionine?
make sure to study how trna would look like page 26 of the notebook warm up 30 also page 27 DNA Worksheet. ok?
What would the segment of DNA that codes for methionine look like?
T A C
| | |
A T G
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
DNA is often called... because...
The blueprint of life because it contains instructions for making proteins within the cell
Where is DNA located?
In the nucleolus of every cell in the body.
What are the 3 parts of a Nucleotide?
2)A phosphate group
3) A nitrogenic base
Thymine and Cytosine are...
single ring structures
Adenine and Guanine are...
double ring structures
What kind of shape does DNA have?
Remember that DNA has a sugar phosphate backbone ok?
What is this rule called?
Chargaff's base pairing rule
What makes up DNA?
DNA is a very long...
Name the 4 bases in DNA
DNA is made up of what kind of bonds?
Hydrogen and Covalent
Nitrogenic bases are held together with what kind of bonds?
Who gets credit for discovering DNA?
Crick and Wattson
What are the three enzymes involved in DNA replication and what are there jobs?
-Helicase enzyme- Unwinds DNA
-DNA polymerases 3- Builds daughter strands
-DNA polymerases 2- edits and repairs
What is the Central Dogma?
Flow of Genetic Information.
What is the central dogma of genetic information?
(hint: Protein Synthesis)
DNA to mRna to Protein
What is the difference between RNA and DNA?
-Uracil replaces Thymine
-Uracil pairs with Adenine
What is a codon?
three based word that codes for an amino acid
How many amino acids are there?
What is the start codon?
(hint: what time do we go back to school)
What are the 2 main steps from Genes to Proteins? Where do they take place?
Transcription and Translation. Transcription occurs in the nucleolus. Translation occurs in the ribosome.
What are the 3 types of RNA?
Compare and Contrast Codons and Anti codons
codons anti Codons
-3 based word that codes for -pairs with
an amino acid codons to bring
-on mRna only appropriate
- on tRna
what is a gene?
a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
Where are proteins made?
What is a protein made of?
what are some things we need protein for?
What does every amino acid have attached to the center carbon? Draw it.
H - -N - -C--OH
What is denaturation?
when a protein losses it shape and function
a chain of amino acids are called...
What common visible indication that denaturation occurred?
-they clump together
Name all the human body systems?
What are the 4 types of tissue we will cover?
What is the epithelial tissue?
Outer layer of skin and they form the lining of your organs
what is the job of epithelial tissue?
to protect the tissue and organs they cover.
What is the job of connective tissue?
to hold together and support other tissue, and to cushion, insulate, and connect organs.
What does nervous tissue form?
the communication tissue that makes this behavior possible
What is a Neuron?
the basic unit of nerve tissue, the nerve cell
What does Muscle tissue do?
enables us to be active, move blood, and digest food.
What are the 2 types of muscle tissue?
Voluntary and Involuntary
What is Voluntary Muscle tissue?
A muscle you can control under your own will.
What is Involuntary muscle tissue?
A muscle that works without you continuously controlling it.
What are 3 organs that make up the circulatory system?
What is blood?
Connective tissue made up of cells and liquid
What is the heart?
multi chamber, muscular organ (4 chambers)
What are the capillaries?
microscopic blood vessels with very thin walls that allow the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen out of the blood and the diffusion of waste into blood.
what are the Arties? (hint: arties away)
thick walled blood vessels that carries blood away from the heart to the capillaries. It is oxygen rich and under pressure.
What is the anatomy of the heart?
What is the Atria?
two upper chamber that pumps blood to the ventricles
What are the ventricles?
two lower chamber that pumps blood to body and has thicker muscular walls.
What is the valve?
flaps of tissue in the heart that prevents blood from flowing backwards
What are the 4 things that make up blood?
red blood cells
white blood cells
What is plasma?
in volume of blood made up of water salts proteins and other transported substances
What is the job of the red blood cells?
carries oxygen from lungs to all tissues in the body
What is the job of white blood cells?
to fight off infections and prevent cancer using leukocytes
what are Platelets? what are they responsible for?
small fragments of blood cells responsible for
What is Anatomy?
study of structure
What is Physiology?
study of structure's function
what are the 5 levels of study in the body from smallest to largest?
the order blood flows through the 4 chambers of the heart?
right atrium to right ventricle to left atrium to left ventricle
What body system is the heart apart of? What is its function?
Circulatory system and its job is to transport materials.
What is the functional unit of the kidney? Where is it found?
(kidney tubule) nephron found in the cortex.
What happens in the nephron of the kidney?
Forms urine/filtering waste. Waste collects in pelvis.
How does negative feedback help regulate your internal body temperature?
triggers body responses like shivering which heats up the body (blood vessels constrict) and sweating which cools down the body (blood vessels dilate)
How does homeostasis stimulate some cells but not others?
hormones have a specific shape that fits only a certain cell.
What are the main valves we went over in class?
Bicuspid valve and Tricuspid valve
What is the difference between the bicuspid and tricuspid valve?
location the bicuspid valve is located in left atrium nd the tricuspid is located in the right atrium
what is the function of the glomerulus?
where filtration occurs water and dissolved particles are pulled from the blood
What is the function of the bowman's capsule?
Filters out large particles
What is the function of the loop of Henle?
concentrates the filtrate by removing more water from it
Diffusion is a process where molecules move from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Toxins diffuse from the blood and into tubules of the nephron. How might his process be affected if fewer blood vessels were intertwined in the tubules?
Less toxins would be defused from the blood.
What is the affect of glucagon?
sugar levels rise
What is the affect of insolent?
sugar levels decrease