327 terms

Cambridge DELTA Module 1 Terms

Terms/concepts for the Cambridge DELTA Module 1 Exam. ELT terms from An A-Z of ELT by Scott Thornbury.
STUDY
PLAY
acculturation
SLA The process by which a person integrates into a particular culture. One of the first theories of SLA that attempted to prioritize social factors over purely cognitive ones. It has been partly rehabilitated under the name socialization.
accuracy
SLA The extent to which a learner's use of a second language conforms to the rules of the language. Once thought to be a precondition for fluency.
achievement test
TESTING Designed to test what learners have learned over a week, month, term or entire course. Because ___ ___s are directly related to the content of the teaching program, they provide feedback on the teaching-learning process, and are therefore useful data for course evaluation.
action research
METHODOLOGY A form of teacher-driven research, the twin goals of which are to improve classroom practice, and to 'empower' teachers. Typically motivated less by the desire to answer the 'big' questions than by the need to solve a specific teaching problem in the local context.
planning->acting->observing->reflecting
adolescents
METHODOLOGY The ideal time to learn a second language. This age group tends to outperform adults and to progress more rapidly than younger learners.
affect
PSYCHOLOGY The general word for emotion or feelings. These factors positively or negatively influence language learning. Often contrasted with cognitive factors such as intelligence and learning style. Low ___ive filter=emotionally well-disposed to processing input High ___ive=won't process input so effecitively.
affix, affixation
VOCABULARY An element that is added to a word and which changes its meaning. The process of doing this.
affordance
LINGUISTICS The language learning opportunities that exist in a learner's linguistic 'environment.' Maximized with meaningful activities and giving learners feedback.
agency
METHODOLOGY Control of your own actions, including your mental activity. A notion from critical pedagogy. Learners are not objects of the teaching process; they are subjects of the learning process. A factor that contributes to motivation.
applied linguistics
LINGUISTICS Concerned with the application of linguistic theory to solving language-related problems in the real world. Language planning, speech therapy, lexcography, translation studies, forensic linguistics.
appraisal
LINGUISTICS Also called stance; the way speakers and writers use language to express their personal attitude to what is being said or written; one of the main ways that language's interpersonal function is realized; consists of 3 categories: affect (personal feelings), judgment (social values and social esteem), appreciation (opinions). These can all be expressed lexically, grammatically or through the use of paralinguistic devices.
appropriacy
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Using language in a way that is suitable for the context and in a way that meets the expectations of the people you are communicating with. An aspect of sociolinguistic competence, which is a component of a speaker's overall communicative competence. (Dell Hymes)
appropriation
SLA To make something your own. Gaining ownership of a skill by first doing it with someone who is more skilled than you are until you can control or regulate the skill yourself. A key concept in sociocultural learning theory. Language is not simply a behavior that is conditioned through repeated practice, but that it is one of collaborative construction, in which skills are transferred in socially-situated activity.
aptitude
PSYCHOLOGY The innate talent or predisposition for language learning. 3 kinds of ability: auditory, linguistic, memory.
aspect
GRAMMAR The way the speaker's 'view' of an event is expressed by the verb phrase, regardless of the time of the event itself. 2 of these in English: progressive and perfect.
contingency
PSYCHOLOGY The sense that what is happening is connected to what has just happened and what is about to happen.
audiolingualism
METHODOLOGY Became widespread in the US in the 1950s and 60s. Distinctive feature=drilling of sentence patterns. Came from a view of learning as habit formation (behaviorism). Spoken language was prioritized; translation and the use of metalanguage were discouraged; accuracy was considered a precondition for fluency. Shot down by Chomsky in the early 60s and the birth of mentalism.
authenticity
LINGUISTICS Became a priority with the communicative approach. The idea of "grade the task, not the text" was born. This kind of interaction is both more communicative and offers more affordances for learning.
automaticity
PSYCHOLOGY The ability to perform a task without having to focus attention on it. This frees a learner's limited attentional resources for more demanding activities. A process of setting up chunks and associations that link one step with another. This doesn't mean a sacrifice of accuracy. When chunks of language are produced in a pre-assembled form, the speaker has much less chance of making mistakes.
autonomy
PSYCHOLOGY Also called self-directed learning. The capacity to take responsibility for your own learning.
behaviorism
PSYCHOLOGY A psychological theory popular in the mid-twentieth century that viewed learning as a sort of habit formation and positive reinforcement. Audiolingualism is the teaching method that is associated with this. stimulus-response-reinforcement.
This theory rejected any role, in learning, for mental processes such as thought and reasoning.
bilingualism
SLA At one point it was considered a handicap to second language learners since (according to behaviorist theory) the first language interferes with the second. ADDITIVE=second language added to first without threatening the speaker's first language identity; SUBTRACTIVE=the second language replaces the first, threatening the speaker's language identity.
cognitive learning theory
PSYCHOLOGY A learning theory that draws upon ideas from cognitive psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with perception and thinking. Piaget first proposed the view that language develops out of the child's thoughts and growing awareness of the world. A later version suggests that the child acquires language by forming and testing hypotheses about the adult language it hears around it. Has been criticized as being mechanistic, and for ignoring social and affective factors.
coherence
DISCOURSE How the sentences in a text relate to each other.
cohesion
DISCOURSE The use of grammatical and lexical means to achieve connected text. LEXICAL: repetition, synonyms, general words, same thematic field, substitution, ellipsis; GRAMMATICAL: references, substitution, ellipsis, linkers, parallelism
collocation
VOCABULARY Words that frequently occur together. Can be grammatical (collocate with specific prepositions: "account for") or lexical: "narrow escape."
communication strategy
SLA Ways that learners get around the fact that they may not know how to say something, but that help the learner achieve their intended message: paraphrase, word coinage, foreignizing a word, approximation, all-purpose words, language-switching, paralinguistics, appealing for help.
avoidance strategy
SLA Abandoning a message or replacing an original messae with one that is less ambitious.
communicative activity
METHODOLOGY Activity in which real communication occurs. Key features: purposefulness, reciprocity, negotiation, unpredictability, heterogeneity, synchronicity.
communicative approach
METHODOLOGY An umbrella term used to describe a major shift in language teaching that occurred in Europe in the 1970s. Shift away from language systems and toward how these systems are used in real communication. Linguistic competience replaced with focus on communicative competence. Directly related to functional-notional syllabus.
strong CLT
METHODOLOGY An emphasis on deep-end communication. You learn language by using it. Led to task-based learning.
weak CLT
METHODOLOGY An emphasis on shallow-end communication. You learn language and then you use it. Learn the language systems first and then put them to communicative use.
communicative competence
LINGUISTICS First proposed by Dell Hymes, what you know in order to be able to communicate effectively. The term contrasts with linguistic competence (Chomsky). Hymes introduced the notion of appropriacy.
community language learning
METHODOLOGY Also called counseling learning, a teaching method developed by Charles Curran in the 70s in the US. The learners (clients) sit in a circle having a conversation. They consult with the teacher-knower, who is outside the circle, to help formulate each utterance. The conversation is recorded, played back, translated, transcribed, boarded and read aloud.
competence
LINGUISTICS What we intuitively know about a language in order to be able to use it. Contrasts with performance. This motivates he use of corpus data to inform grammars, dictionaries and classroom materials. I language (internalized language) and E language (I language put to use externally).
competency
METHODOLOGY A specific practial skill. sometimes in the form of 'can do' statements.
complexity
SLA Gauged by the following factors: amount of subordination, complex sentences, reference, lexical/linking verb ratio, conjunctions
comprehension
PSYCHOLOGY The process of understanding speech or writing. It results from an interaction between different kinds of knowledge. Bottom-up vs. top-down processing is involved. Involves different psychological operations, including perception, recognition and inferencing.
computer-mediated communication CMC
METHODOLOGY The use of networked computers in order to communicate. Can be synchronous (people communicate in real time) or asynchronous (delayed communication).
concord
GRAMMAR Also called agreement. The name given to the grammatical relationship whereby the form of one word requires a corresponding form in another. In English, it's the case with subjects and verbs (I like, He likes...).
assimiliation
PHONOLOGY When a sound is modified by a neighboring sound, such as when the final /n/ of green is followed by a /p/, and is pronounced /m/; /t/ /d/=/p//b/; /t//d/=/k//g/
elision
PHONOLOGY This happens when a sound is omitted, because another, similars, sound follows. This is common when two plosive sounds occur togeher. walked to=walktuh; baked beans= bakebeans; last week=lasweek; next, please=neksplease
liaison
PHONOLOGY This is where a sound is introduced at word boundaries, especially after words ending in a vowel, as in law and order=lohrandorder
juncture
PHONOLOGY This is the pausing (or lack of pausing) at the boundary between two sounds, which accounts for the difference between ice cream and I scream.
connectionism
PSYCHOLOGY A model of learning which belongs to what are called usage-based accounts of language acquisition. It does not presuppose any innate language-learning faculty, nor any rule-learning and rule-using. It assumes we are mentally predisposed to look for associations between elements and create links between them in response to frequently encountered patterns of usage.
consciousness-raising CR
PSYCHOLOGY The way that learners become aware, or are made aware, of features of the language they are learning. The term belongs to cognitive learning theory, which claims a central role for conscious mental operations in learning. Things teachers do with this potential: enhancing the input in some way so as to make certain items more salient; asking learners to infer rules from examples (inductive learning); asking them to compare their own output with that of more proficient users of the target language (noticing the gap); problematizing the input; pushed output (noticing the holes in the present state of their language.
constructivism
PSYCHOLOGY A theory of learning that claims that individuals actively construct knowledge, rather than passively receiving it. Supports the case for learner-centered instruction and experiential learning. Underscores the argument for personalization. Key figures=Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner. Contrasts with behaviorist theory and is ideologically aligned with cognitive learning theory, mentalism and, most closely, humanism.
content and language integrated learning
METHODOLOGY CLIL Teaching a subject through English. Also called content-based teaching. A strong form of the communicative approach in that there is no predetermined language syllabus.
contrastive analysis
SLA The way the the linguistic systems of two languages are compared and contrasted. Used to be thought that a comparison between a learner's L1 and L2 would predict the errors that a learner would make; the underlying assumption was a behaviorist one--that L1 interference was to blame. Many errors are now attributed to developmental causes, not interference. The best predictions of this are in the area of phonology.
direct approach to conversation
METHODOLOGY Argues that the characteristic features of conversation, as identified in conversation analysis, should be taught explicitly and in isolation, before being integrated into freer practice activities. These features include conversational gambits, turn-taking, use of discourse markers, appraisal language, vague language, etc.
indirect approach to conversation
METHODOLOGY Argues that conversation is best learned by having conversations. Syllabus might consist of a list of topics to talk about or of situations where conversations are likely to occur.
conversation analysis
DISCOURSE Concerned with describing the structure of conversational interaction, including the sequential organization of talk and the ways that speakers repair communication problems. The basic unit of talk is the turn. Managed by turn taking, includes adjacency pairs, conversational openings and closings, backchanneling and repair strategies. Limited in that it divorces conversation from its context.
co-operative principle
DISCOURSE The principle that speakers try to co-operate with one another. When people take part in a conversation they do so on the assumption that the other speakers will observe certain unstated rules. First articulated by H.P. Grice, included 4 maxims:
maxim of quantity: make your contribution as informative as required
maxim of quality: make your contribution one that is true
maxim of relation: make your contribution relevant
maxim of manner: avoid obscurity and ambiguity. be brief and orderly.
Has been criticized as being culturally biased.
conversational implicature
DISCOURSE The ability to infer from what has been said what has not been said.
corpus
LINGUISTICS A collection of actually occurring texts (either spoken or written) stored and accessed by means of computers, and useful for investigating language use.
corpus linguistics
LINGUISTICS The use of corpora for researching language structure and use; has lead to the development of grammars and dictionaries that claim to be more reliable than their forbears, in that they are based on attested data. Has been criticized on the grounds that the information it reveals relates only to language performance.
course design
METHODOLOGY The design of a language teaching program and of the specific materials to be used on a program. Stages include needs analysis, goal setting, syllabus design, materials choice, assessment instruments, evaluation procedures.
critical pedagogy
METHODOLOGY Has roots in progressive education and is also sometimes called transformative education. Gained prominence through Paulo Freire. Assumes that education can never be purely disinterested or neutral. It either functions to maintain the status quo or it works to change the status quo. Has been influenced by humanism, learner autonomy, literacy training, critical discourse analysis, identity politics and cultural studies.
Culture
LINGUISTICS Refers to those highly valued activities and artifacts related to the arts.
culture
LINGUISTICS Addresses these questions:
What is the relationship between language and culture and to what extent do languages express cultural values?
Does learning a second language involve learning a new set of cultural values?
Does teaching a second language involve teaching the culture of the language? Is there a homogeneous English culture?
How do cultural factors impact on methodology? How and to what extent should methodology adapt to take account of local cultural practices?
Is there such a thing as intercultural competence, analogous to communicative competence, and if so, how is it fostered?
curriculum
METHODOLOGY The whole complex of ideological, social and administrative factors which contribute to the planning of its teaching program. Embodies several decisions:
1. about the objectives or goals of the program
2. about the content--from these decisions the syllabus will be derived
3. about the method of instruction
4. about how the program is evaluated
Concerned with the beliefs, values and theory, not with how they are realized.
deductive learning
PSYCHOLOGY Occurs when a rule or a generalization is first presented to the learners, and then they go on to apply it in practice activities. Associated with approaches such as grammar-translation. Can be very effective in teaching form of the language.
deixis
GRAMMAR The way language points to spatial, temporal and personal features of the context. The speaker's location is the _____ center, and these expressions distinguish between 'near' the speaker and 'away' from the speaker. Can be expressed by certain verbs, which have direction built into their meaning: come, go, bring, take.
dialect
SOCIOLINGUISTICS A regional or social variety of a language.
dictogloss
METHODOLOGY A form of dictation in which students hear the complete text (short) and then reconstruct it from memory. Learners first work individually, then in pairs, then in groups, each time comparing their versions of the text and negotiating changes.
direct method
METHODOLOGY An umbrella term for a wide range of language teaching methods that emerged in the later part of the 19th century.
They shared the belief that only the target language should be used in the classroom and that therefore translation should be avoided at all costs. Started with Maxmilian Berlitz. Borne out of the demand for learning languages for international commerce and tourism. Laid the foundations of applied linguistics. In the US, it ingested behaviorist theory and became audiolingualism.
discourse analysis
DISCOURSE Any connected piece of speech or writing. The study of how such stretches of language achieve both cohesion and coherence.
end-weight
DISCOURSE A principle in which new information is placed at the end of a sentence rather than at the beginning, which is normally reserved for given information.
discourse marker
DISCOURSE Also called pragmatic markers. Words or expressions that normally come at the beginning of an utterance, and function to orient the listener to what will follow. Can indicate some kind of cane of direction in the talk or appeal to the listener in some way.
linkers
DISCOURSE Used to connect what has been said to what follows. and, but, or, so, because
discussion
METHODOLOGY Opportunity for learners to interact freely and spontaneously, to cope with unpredictability, to voice opinions using language that is both complex and fluent. More structured than conversation. Risks: might get out of hand, learners might feel unduly constrained by the TL, some learners might dominate.
display question
METHODOLOGY Questions asked by the teachers in order that learners can 'display' their knowledge. They typically initiate a 3 part exchange that is characteristic of classroom interaction and is called IRF (interaction, response, follow-up). Usually aimed at finding out what learners can say in the TL. Contrast with real questions.
dogme ELT
METHODOLOGY The name of a loose collective of teachers who challenge what they consider to be an over-reliance on materials, including published coursebooks, in current language teaching. Based on DOGME 95, a group of Danish filmmakers who vowed to make films using minimal means for maximum effect. Proponents say they are not so much anti-materials as they are pro-learner, and thus align themselves with other forms of learner-centered instruction and critical pedagogy.
drama
METHODOLOGY Can provide entertaining practice opportunities, as well as offering a useful springboard into real-life language use. A greater range of registers can be practised than are normally available in classroom talk. Can include roleplays and simulations.
drill
METHODOLOGY Repetitive oral practice of a language item, whether a word, a sound, a phrase or a sentence structure. Follow a prompt-response sequence. Were a defining feature of the audiolingual method and were designed to reinforce good language 'habits.' Can still be communicative with an information gap type element built in ('find someone who...').
dynamics
METHODOLOGY The actions and interactions, both conscious and unconscious, that take place between members of a group, whether the whole class or sub-group. Instrumental in forging a productive and motivating classroom environment. Determined by the composition of the group (age, sex, status), the patterns of relationships between group members, physical factors such as group size, the task itself.
eclecticism
METHODOLOGY Combining techniques and activities from different methods in your teaching. Motivated by different reasons, one being a general distrust of a 'one size fits all' method. Ts sometimes think that certain methods are not sensitive enough to such variables as the context, culture and learning styles of the students. Has been criticized on the grounds that it lacks principle and encourages an 'anything goes' approach to teaching. Principled ____ subscribes to a 'post-method' philosophy.
ellipsis
DISCOURSE Leaving elements out of a sentence because they are either unnecessary or because their sense can be worked out from the immediate context. Very common in spoken language and is also a common feature of certain text types where brevity is a priority (i.e. postcards).
error
SLA An instance of the learner's language that does not conform to accepted norms of usage, and which is attributed to incomplete or faulty learning. Usually defined in terms of adult native speakers. Sometimes distinguished from mistakes, the former being due ot lack of knowledge (i.e. competence), and the latter being due to the demands of performance. Categorized in a number of ways:
pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar or discourse; or according to the way they depart from the norm (omission, addition, mis-selection, misformation, misordering); also categorized according to their cause.
evaluation
METHODOLOGY Not to be confused with assessment. Can be ongoing (formative): getting feedback on the curriculum in action. Can be final (summative): when the outcomes of the program are evaluated according to the goals that were established at the outset. Procedures involve the use of questionnaires, interviews, observation, meetings and focus groups.
examination
METHODOLOGY A formal test that is usually administered by some examining body.
exercise
METHODOLOGY An activity that involves the controlled manipulation of the forms of the language. Contrasts with more meaning-focused, and less tightly controlled, activities such as tasks. Usually written, like the equivalent of drills. Closed=only 1 answer; open=more than one possible. include gap fills, sentence transformations, ordering exercises, matching exercises, insertion exercises, deletion exercises, translation exercises, error-correction exercises.
experiential learning
METHODOLOGY A general term for 'deep end' approaches to learning that rate direct practical experience over the learning and application of abstract rules. This might take the form of TBL, discovery learning or content-based learning. Belongs to the constructivist school of learning theory in which knowledge is a mental construct which is subject to constant re-evaluation and reconstruction. The cycle consists of alternating stages of action and reflection. Shares with mentalist theory a belief in the value of inductive learning. Shares with humanism a commitment to whole-person learning and with critical pedagogy a belief in the transformative power of direct experience. Particularly appropriate in teaching young learners.
facilitation
METHODOLOGY A way of thinking about teaching that recognizes the fact that teachers do not directly cause learning, but that they can provide the conditions in which learning happens. The notion comes from humanist theory and partly from critical pedagogy, both of which credit the learner with agency in the learning process. Community Language Learning is a good example of this.
feedback
SLA The information, either immediate or delayed, that learners get on their performance. Traditionally takes the form of correction. Can be explicit or implicit.
finite verbs
GRAMMAR Show that they are related to a subject by having person, number and tense. "Brad works for his uncle."
non-finite verbs
GRAMMAR Do not show person, number or tense contrasts. The infinitive, present and past participles are forms of these. "Before working for his uncle, Brad used to work for his father."
first language acquisition
PSYCHOLOGY It takes place relatively quickly. It is systematically staged. It happens despite the 'poverty of the stimulus.' It results from contact and interaction and not from any formal teaching. Given a reasonable amount of exposure, it is always 100% successful. We are hard-wired to learn a first language.
critical period hypothesis
PSYCHOLOGY Neurological factors occurring at puberty mean that thereafter you can't just pick up a language as you did when you were a child.
fluency
SLA The ability to speak a language idiomatically and accurately, without undue pausing, without an intrusive accent, and in a manner appropriate to the context. The ability to produced and maintain speech in real time. This involves: appropriate pausing, long runs, formulaic language, production strategies. Can also be called "communicative effectiveness" regardless of formal accuracvy or speed of delivery.
focus on form
SLA When conscious attention is directed to some formal feature of the language input. It has been argued that this is a necessary condition for language learning. Meaning is not enough. It can occur at any stage in classroom instruction. Correction is also a kind of this.
form
LINGUISTICS The way a word, phrase or sentence is written or pronounced, independent of its meaning. Often contrasted with function.
formal language
SOCIOLINGUISTICS A style of language that is appropriate in situations where there is social distance between speakers, or where the situation or topic requires a degree of seriousness. Not to be confused with politeness. It is more common in print, such as in official documents. Characterized by:
complex sentences, frequent use of the passive, reported speech, fast modals, long and complex noun phrases, long words with Greek or Latin roots.
highlighting form
METHODOLOGY When a teacher draws learners' attention to features of spoken or written language using:
modelling, finger-coding, cuisenaire rods, boardwork, substitution tables. Takes place in close association with the meaning of the item.
formulaic language
LINGUISTICS Those sentences of two or more words that operate as a single unit. They are not generated word by word, but are stored in the memory and retrieved as if they were one-word vocabulary items. Also called lexical chunks, multi-word units, ready-mades, prefabricated language and holophrases. Can be classified in the following categories:
collocations, phrasal verbs, idioms, sentence frames, social formulae, discourse markers.
They make for easy access in real-time speaking conditions and aid fluency because of the low planning time required. Can also help make speaker sound idiomatic, a feature of the target speech community. The central platform of the Lexical Approach.
fossilization
SLA When an error becomes a permanent feature of a learner's interlanguage. In theory such errors are resistant to correction. It has been hypothesized that the lack of instruction (and therefore the lack of a focus on form) is the main cause. May also be due to a lack of negative feedback on errors or the lack of a push to make learners' output more accurate. Some learners also have no social motivation to improve their interlanguage.
function
LINGUISTICS The communicative purpose of a language item. It is also the communicative uses to which forms and meanings are put. To assign a ____ to a text or an utterance requires knowledge of the context in which the text is used. Can be micro (speech acts with +ing) or macro (expressive purposes, regulatory purposes, etc). Differ from notions, which describe areas of meaning.
functional syllabus
METHODOLOGY A syllabus based around a list of language functions. Often combined with notions. They were developed to support a communicative approach. If these have survived at all, it's as one strand in a multi-layered syllabus.
function words
GRAMMAR Those words which have a mainly grammatical function (also called grammar words). Includes auxiliary verbs, determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and some adverbs. Contrast with content words. Of the 50 most common words in English, 49 are these.
futurity
FUNCTION Expressed by
will + infinitive
going to + infinitive
present simple
present progressive
will + be + present participle
will + have + past participle
Sometimes determined by speaker's perception of, or attitude to, the future event being referred to.
genre
LINGUISTICS Any type of spoken or written discourse which is used and recognized by members of a particular culture or sub-culture. As these become established, they acquire a conventionalized structure and often a characteristic vocabulary and grammar. Involves features at macro level (overall organization) and micro level (specific grammatical and functional features).
prescriptive grammar
LINGUISTICS Prescribes correct usage, according to the standards of some group. What you ought or ought not to say. Seen as a marker of group membership. Not what we mean in the context of EFL/ESL.
descriptive grammar
LINGUISTICS Describes, in a systematic way, the rules that govern how words are combined and sequenced in order to form sentences in a given language. Deal with morphology and syntax. Can be formal or functional.
pedagogical grammar
LINGUISTICS A kind of descriptive grammar designed for teaching and learning purposes. Focuses on grammar as a subsystem of overall language proficiency, as distinct from form, phonology or discourse. More selective than a linguist's grammar. Formal rather than functional.
mental grammar
LINGUISTICS The way that a language is represented in your mind: it is the internalized, and usually implicit, knowledge about the way the language works. It is part of every user's competence. Should not be confused with accuracy.
grammaring
LINGUISTICS A term coined by the applied linguist Diane Larsen-Freeman in order to capture the notion of grammar being more a skill than an inert body of knowledge. The process by which a sequence of words if fine-tuned in order to create a more complex message than mere words can express. Has also been used to describe the way the learner's mental grammar develops, over time, from a mainly lexical mode into a fuller mode (mirrors L1 acquisition).
grammar-translation method
METHODOLOGY Developed out of a way that classical languages (Greek and Latin) were traditionally taught. It wasn't fully formalized until the mid-19th century, when it became institutionalized in schools in Germany. First known as the Prussian Method. Grammar is taught deductively (rules first) and accuracy is highly prioritized. Seriously challenged by the Reform movement of the late 19th century.
homonyms
VOCABULARY Words that are written and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings.
I like pizza. What does she look like?
homographs
VOCABULARY Words that are written the same way, but pronounced differently, and which have different meanings.
A long and windy road. A windy night.
humanistic approaches
METHODOLOGY Learning approaches that assert the central role of the 'whole person' in the learning process. Emerged in the mid-20th century as a reaction to behaviorism and to counterbalance the exclusive intellectualism of mentalism. Identifies with the autonomy movement, learner-centered instruction, whole language learning and critical pedagogy. Most closely associated with the Silent Way, Community Language Learning and Suggestopaedia. In recent years, has come to include NLP and the theory of multiple intelligences.
hyponym
VOCABULARY A specific item of a larger category. An orange is a fruit (orange is the specific item).
superordinate
VOCABULARY A larger category with specific items under its umbrella. An orange is a fruit (fruit is the larger category).
hypothetical meaning
FUNCTION Contrasts with factual meaning and refers to situations that are assumed to be improbable or impossible. Sometimes the term counterfactual is used to describe impossibility. Frequently expressed by conditional constructions.
identity
PSYCHOLOGY One of the most important functions of language is as a marker of _____. Speakers make accent and dialect choices in order to align themselves with particular socially and geographically defined groups. Learners can also try to identify with a discourse community. L2 ___ may either support or threaten their first language ___, and this in turn will affect their success. Multiple factors affect the learner's notion of this: gender, ethnicity, job, family relationship, etc.
idiom
VOCABULARY A word sequence whose meaning is not literal (cannot be easily worked out from its individual words. Can be classified in a variety of ways:
metaphorical: a hot potato, the tip of the iceberg
restricted collocations: pitch black, fat chance
phrasal verbs: pick up, get on
frozen similes: as old as the hills, as easy as pie
binomials and trinomials: hook, line and sinker, spick and span
proverbs and catchphrases: waste not, want not
euphemisms: pass away
true idioms (fixed and non-literal): spill the beans, fly off the handle
More in informal spoken language and often with an interpersonal function.
idiomaticity
LINGUISTICS The extent to which a person's language sounds native-like. Has been a key influence on the development of the lexical approach.
immersion
SLA When children, as a group, are taught some or all of their school subjects in a language that is not their mother tongue. It is aimed at fostering bilingualism. Can be total (when all curriculum subjects are taught in the second language) or partial (when only some subjects are taught in the second language). Should be distinguished from submersion (only individuals, not a group).
individual learner differences
PSYCHOLOGY Variations based on learning styles, abilities, needs and drives. Reflected in the differences in the rate at which learners learn and in their eventual levels of attainment. Key factors are biological, personality, cognitive and affective. Outcomes of this research were: learner training procedures, learning strategies, one-to-one teaching and self-access centers.
inductive learning
PSYCHOLOGY The process of working out rules on the basis of examples. Also called discovery learning. Has been a core principle in such natural methods as the direct method and audiolingualism. More recently has been promoted as a means of consciousness-raising.
input
SLA the spoken or written language that learners are exposed to. You cannot learn a language without this. Krashen argues that this is all that is necessary for language acquisition to take place, but it must be comprehensible and one step above the learner's interlanguage.
intake
SLA According to cognitive learning theory, the conscious process of noticing features of input results in this. The part that was taken into short-term memory, the first step in the process off accommodating it into the learner's developing interlanguage system.
instructions
METHODOLOGY The way that teachers manage classroom learning. Usually verbal. Will normally include some of the following features:
a frame, a brief summary, the organization, the procedure, the mode, the outcome, a strategy, the timing, a cue
Have a directive function and are typically realized using the imperative.
intelligibility
PHONOLOGY When other people can understand what you are saying. Has resulted in the phonological core--features of phonology that are crucial.
interaction
SLA When learners communicate with one another, or with their teacher, or with the other speakers of the target language. Learner-learner ____ is a defining feature of the communicative approach, promotes good group dynamics and is a step toward learner autonomy.
interaction hypothesis
SLA Michael Long's theory that tasks that promote negotiation of meaning are beneficial. Exchanges where learners jointly resolve a communication problem provide a source of comprehensible input. Long argues for the need for interaction, primarily because it is a site for negotiating meaning, called discourse repair strategies.
interlanguage
SLA The grammatical system that a learner creates in the course of learning another language. it is neither their first language system, nor the target language system, but occupies a transitional point between the two. Seen as an independent system in its own rright, and not simply a degenerate form of the target language. Reflects the learner's evolving system of rules. It follows particular stages, no matter what the learner's first language is. Initially called the basic learner variety. Partial competence is a valid objective in second language learning.
intonation
PHONOLOGY The music of speech. A suprasegmental feature of pronunciation, meaning that it is a property of whole stretches of speech rather than of individual segments. Functions of this are:
grammatical function: indicating the difference between statements and questions
attitudinal function: indicating interest, surprise, boredom; what is called high and low involvement
discoursal function: contrasting new information with information that is already known, hence shared between speakers
Serves both to separate the stream of speech into blocks of information (tone units), and to mark information within these units as being significant.
High key=implies a contrast in attitude with respect to the preceding utterance
Low key=Speaker is adding something that is obvious or by the way
language acquisition
SLA The non-conscious and natural process of internalizing the rules of a language, as in L1. What is popularly called picking up a language. Learners will construct a mental grammar of the language naturally by a process called creative construction.
no-interface position
SLA The claim that acquisition and learning are separate, independent processes, that do not influence one another.
language analysis
LINGUISTICS The study of the systems of a language, such as grammar and phonology, for the purposes of the language. Typical topic areas are tense, modality, vocabulary, discourse analysis, phonemes, stress and intonation.
language awareness
LINGUISTICS A teacher's or learner's explicit knowledge about language, often gained through language analysis. Includes not only systems of the subject language, such as its grammar and phonology, but also knowledge of its social and cultural role. Helps inform the design and choice of materials, syllabuses, classroom teaching methods and tests.
learner-centered instruction
METHODOLOGY Aims to give learners more say in areas that are traditionally considered the domain of the teacher or of the institution. Movement toward learner autonomy. Also describes ways of organizing classroom interaction so that the focus is directed away from the teacher.
learner training
METHODOLOGY The aim of this is to help learners make the most of the learning opportunities that are available to them. in the long term, it is directed at achieving autonomy in language learning. Typical procedures include:
having learners complete questionnaires designed to help them identify their own learning style
showing learners how to get the most out of available resources
training learners in effective reading and listening strategies
experimenting with techniques to aid memorization
learning strategy
PSYCHOLOGY Techniques or behaviors that learners consciously apply in order to enhance their learning. Becomes a ___ ____ when the intention is long-term learning rather than solely immediate understanding. Some characteristics of good learners include:
actively seeking out real-life opportunities to use the L2
not being afraid of appearing foolish in using the L2
paying attention to the formal properties of the L2
monitoring their own performance in the L2 and trying to learn from their errors
making intelligent guesses
Often grouped according to whether they are cognitive, metacognitive or social/affective strategies.
sub-vocalization
PSYCHOLOGY When learners repeat, under their breath, what they have just heard.
learning style
PSYCHOLOGY Your preferred way of learning. Can be influenced by biographical factors or by innately endowed factors. Usually presented in polarities. Includes:
analytic, global, rule-users, data-gatherers, reflective, impulsive, group-oriented, solitary, extroverted, introverted, verbal, visual, passive, active.
lesson design
METHODOLOGY The way that individual lessons are structured. Provides a secure framework within which a certain amount of spontaneity and improvisation can be accommodated. Includes PPP, TTT, TBL.
presentation practice production
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which a pre-selected grammar item is first presented using direct method techniques, then practised in a controlled way, then practised by means of a freer, productive activity such as a roleplay. The design that has prevailed in ELT methodology for the past half century. Final stage reinforced by the advent of the communicative approach. This design has been criticized because the first two phases receive undue emphasis. To some it's a very mechanical model of learning.
test teach test
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which learners first perform a task; the T uses this in order to identify the learners' specific language needs; they are then taught whatever it is they need in order to re-do the task more effectively.
model muddle meddle
METHODOLOGY Lesson design in which the teacher models a task; learners attempt to do the same task in pairs or small groups, while the teacher monitors, intervening where necessary in order to help the learners perform the task effectively; finally, individuals perform the task to the whole group.
ARC
METHODOLOGY Lesson design proposed by Jim Scrivener that focuses on authentic language use, restricted language use and then clarification. These stages can be rearranged and occur many times within one lesson.
lesson plan
METHODOLOGY A document that maps out the teacher's intentions for the lesson. It reflects the teacher's planning decisions as well as the teacher's understanding of the principles of lesson design.
lexical approach
METHODOLOGY An approach to language teaching that has chosen vocabulary (including collocations and formulaic language/chunks) as the main focus for syllabus design and classroom teaching. Emerged out of development of corpus linguistics, especially with frequency and collocations. Michael Lewis argues that language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar. Jane and Dave Willis worked on the assumption that the most frequent words in any language express its most frequent meanings. In their view, words are really 'small grammar' and grammar is 'big words.' Willis' favored TBL; Lewis argues for a more analytic, text-based approach.
lexical item
VOCABULARY A term used to get around the fuzziness of the word 'word.' Any item that functions as a single meaning unit, regardless of its different derived forms, or of the number of words that make it up.
lexical set
VOCABULARY Sets of words that share a meaning relationship. menu, starter, napkin, wine glass, tip, bill all share a meaning relationship. Sometimes a close association can cause 'interference'.
lexical verb
GRAMMAR A content verb, not a function verb. It has a dictionary meaning, rather than serving any sort of grammatical function.
lexis
LINGUSTICS A technical term for the vocabulary of a language, as opposed to its grammar.
linguistic imperialism
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The often destructive effect that majority languages have on minority languages and cultures. Some scholars, such as Robert Phillipson and Alistair Pennycook, argue that the teaching of English not only threatens local languages, but does so in was that perpetuate colonial attitudes and practices.
linguistics
LINGUISTICS The study of human language in general. Includes not only the structure of language (grammar, phonetics, semantics), but also the purposes for which language is used (pragmatics). Prior to the 20th century, was called 'philology' and was primarily focused with the comparative study of languages (always written and often dead). Early 20th century, Swiss philologist Ferdinand de Sausseure shifted the focus on to the principles governing the structure of living languages. His primary concern was semiotics. Lead to the Prague School-->functional approaches + behaviorist theory--> structuralism, which was concerned with describing linguistic structures, with little or no reference to their meaning or use. 1950s=Noam Chomskky and mentalism. Still a focus on forms that how they're realized in real use. Michael Halliday was one linguist who accounted for the way linguistic forms related to their contexts.
linker
DISCOURSE Words that join what has already been said or written to what follows. Show the sense relationship between the two linked elements and include:
additives (and, firstly), summatives (in sum), appositives (namely, in other words), contrastives (but, instead), concessives (however), resultatives (so, therefore), temporals (then, next).
Discursive texts often have a high frequency of linkers to achieve cohesion.
listening subskills
METHODOLOGY The skill of understanding spoken language; can be practiced through comprehension activities, bottom-up processing activities, top-down processing activities,
literacy
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The ability to read and write in a language, usually one's own. Increasingly becoming a necessary skill in ESL/EFL.
literature
DISCOURSE Refers to texts that have a mainly expressive function and which are highly valued in a particular culture. These texts do not feature much in ELT material because they are considered difficult.
materials
METHODOLOGY Anything that is used to support the learning process. Includes coursebooks, workbooks, visual aids, charts, etc. They relieve the teacher of having to do copious preparation; they are a stimulus to language production; they provide immersion-like language exposure; they allow learners to continue studying outside class; they provide variety and entertainment.
meaning
LINGUISTICS Language consists of forms that express certain ____s. The study of ____ is called semantics. Establishing this is one of the most important functions of a language teacher. Can be literal (denotation) or simply associated or cultural (connotation).
memorization
METHODOLOGY To intentionally commit something to memory. Has been out of favor in language teaching because it's associated with rote learning. It doesn't necessarily have to be mindless or meaningless, though. A speaker's fluency depends on having a bank of chunks. 3 key processes that aid in this:
elaboration: processing new information more elaborately improves its chances of being remembered.
rehearsal: mental recycling of material
retrieval: the more times a word is retrieved from long-term memory, the easier it will be to access in the future. Best way is through distributed practice.
Mnemonics, keyword technique and word cards are all useful techniques.
memory
PSYCHOLOGY Distinguish between:
sensory: An echo or visual impression that lasts only a few seconds
working: holds and processes information in the short term
long-term: the part that stores information more permanently.
mentalism
PSYCHOLOGY The theory that language is an innate property of mind. Primarily associated with the work of Noam Chomsky, and represents a reaction to a purely behaviorist view of language acquisition and a return to the rationalist philosophy of Descartes: "I think, therefore I am." Assumes the existence of a built-in universal grammar and presupposes an inborn language acquisition device.
metaphor
LINGUISTICS A figure of speech where one thing is stated in terms of another. Tends to be associated with literary language. They structure the way we think about, and perceive, the world. Can help learners make sense of phrasal verbs and the way prepositions are used in time expressions. Includes a lot of formulaic language and collocations.
Grammatical: the way in which concepts that are normally expressed in one grammatical form (such as verbs), are expressed in another (such as nouns). Can sometimes thinly mask a particular ideology or mindset (a flood of immigrants=disastrous).
method
METHODOLOGY A system for the teaching of a language that is based either on a particular theory of language or on a particular theory of learning, or both. These theories underpin syllabus type, materials and activities. Should not be confused with coursebook or methodology. Nowadays, the term 'approach' is used almost exclusively because had been too prescriptive and too insensitive to local contextual factors.
minimal pair
PHONOLOGY A pair of words which differ in meaning when only one sound (one phoneme) is changed. The differences can be either vowels or consonants.
mixed ability
METHODOLOGY A marked difference among learners in terms of aptitude, learning style and/or motivation. Should be distinguished from mixed levels. Can be viewed as either a classroom management issue or as a syllabus and materials issue. More acute problem in narrow-band curriculum than in broad-band curriculum.
narrow-band curriculum
METHODOLOGY Curriculum in which each stage of the syllabus is highly specified, usually in terms of discrete items of grammar, and where mastery of one stage is a prerequisite for the next. Learning is viewed as segmented, incremental and sequential.
broad-band curriculum
METHODOLOGY Curriculum in which objectives are broadly identified, eg in terms of general competencies. Allows each learner to contribute to the best of his/her abilities. Also allows for the teaching and learning of a variety of language areas concurrently. Learning is viewed as holistic, emergent and concurrent. Better suited to cope with diversity and turn it into a resource.
modality
GRAMMAR The lexical and grammatical ways used by speakers to express their attitude to what they are saying. Can be divided into two groups: extrinsic and intrinsic.
intrinsic: reflects speaker's attitude to the necessity or desirability of the situation; allows us to express a range of interpersonal meanings.
extrinsic: the speaker's assessment of the likelihood of the situation; allows us to talk about 'the world out there.'
modal verb
GRAMMAR A class of auxiliary verb. There are nine 'pure'. Pure in the sense that they fulfill the formal requirements of auxiliary verbs: form their negatives with 'not'; form questions by inversion with their subject; no infinitive forms, participles or the 3rd person; always 1st in the verb phrase. Can express 2 kinds of meaning: likelihood/possibility (extrinsic) or speaker's attitude (intrinsic).
A number of other single-word and multi-word verbs that combine with other verbs to express modal meaning. Semi-___ or marginal ____.
monitoring
SLA When speakers attend to what they are saying as they say it. Often involves repairing (either by self-correcting or clarifying). Krashen's ____ hypothesis claims that learners use knowledge that they have learned in order to edit utterances that are generated by knowledge that they have acquired. He claims that this is the only use of learned knowledge. Can be monitor over users and under users.
morpheme
PHONOLOGY The smallest meaningful unit in a language. Mean ing ful. Mean can stand on its own (free morpheme), but ing and ful can't (bound morphemes). Bound morphemes are mainly affixes.
morphology
GRAMMAR The area of grammar concerned with the formation of words. Contrasts with syntax. Divided into two branches: inflectional and derivational.
inflectional=describes the way that words, such as verbs, are inflected in order to convey different grammatical meanings. She works, she worked, she is working; where s, ed, and ing are different inflectional affixes.
derivational=the way lexical words are formed, by, for example, affixation and compounding. Thus, the words inflection and inflectional are derived from inflect.
motivation
PSYCHOLOGY What drives learners to achieve a goal; a key factor in determining success or failure in language learning. A distinction is made between 2 orientations: instrumental and integrative.
instrumental=when the learner has a functional objective, such as passing an exam or getting a job.
integrative=when the learner wants to be identified wit the target language community.
Sources: intrinsic or extrinsic.
intrinsic=pleasure of doing a task for its own sake.
extrinsic=receiving some sort of reward.
Factors that contribute: attitudes, goals, value learner attaches to achieving the goals, expectancy of success, self-esteem, intrinsic interest, group dynamic, teacher's attitude
multiple intelligences
PSYCHOLOGY First proposed by Howard Gardner, views intelligence as being multi-dimensional. Includes: verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinasthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
Advocates argue that learning is optimized when these different intelligences are engaged. Belongs to humanistic approaches with a 'new age' flavor.
narrating
FUNCTION Telling stories. A universal function of language. Covers many sub-genres: anecdotes, fables, jokes, urban legends, etc. Serves an interpersonal function. Structure has been broken down into the following components:
abstract, orientation, complicating event, resolution, coda.
Sequence varies according to genre.
natural approach
METHODOLOGY First used in the 19th century to describe teaching methods such as the direct method, that attempted to mirror the process of learning a first language. Translation and grammar explanations were rejected, learners were exposed to sequences of actions and the spoken form was taught before the written form. Term was resurrected by Tracy Terrell in the 70s. Endorsed by Krashen and shared principles with TPR.
naturalistic language acquisition
SLA Language acquisition that takes place in naturalistic (ie, non-classroom) settings. Contrasts with instructed language acquisition.
needs analysis
METHODOLOGY The process of specifying the learners' language needs in advance of designing a course for them, especially an ESP course. Data are usually collected by means of questionnaires or interviews.
neuro-linguistic programming
PSYCHOLOGY A theory about the way the mind processes experience and language. Concerned with the brain, language and learning. Shares with the theory of multiple intelligences the view that the mind is predisposed to process experience in different ways/modalities. Learners have preferred thinking styles, or metaprograms. Many of its ways of establishing rapport are already well-established in literature on affect and in humanistic approaches.
noticing
SLA When your attention is attracted to a feature of the language that you are exposed to and you make a mental note of it. Proponents of cognitive learning theory believe that it's a prerequisite for learning, but not the only one. Turns 'noise' into input before it becomes intake (before it's moved into long-term memory).
input flood
SLA To include an item lots of times in a text to increase the chances of learners noticing it.
noticing the gap
SLA When learners are made aware of a gap in their language knowledge. Can trigger the restructuring of interlanguage.
notional syllabus
METHODOLOGY A syllabus that is organized according to general areas of meaning that are used in most grammars. A reversal of the form to meaning organization. When combined with functions, forms the backbone of the communicative approach. Survives now as just one strand of what are known as multi-layered syllabuses.
object
GRAMMAR The person or thing in a sentence or clause that is affected by the action of the verb. Usually a noun phrase or a pronoun.
one to one teaching
METHODOLOGY Individualized instruction, in contrast to the teaching of small or large groups. Usually occurs face to face, and at times, over the phone, or at a distance.
Advantages for the student: undivided attention of the teacher, optimal opportunities for participation, classes can be tailored to their particular needs, pace and learning style.
Advantages for the teacher: no mixed levels, mixed abilities, diverse interests or different learning styles. Teacher can allow learner some choice in lesson content and direction.
Disadvantages: can be intensive, tiring experiences for both the learner and the teacher. Limited possibilities for communication (only 1 channel).
order of acquisition
SLA The order in which grammar items are thought to be acquired. It is also called the natural order and the order of development. Research was first carried out in L1 acquisition by means of morpheme studies. In the 70s, applied to SLA. The order is the same, irrespective of the learner's L1, age, or the order in which they are taught these items. Prompted Krashen to formulate his natural order hypothesis. According to this view, teaching can't change the route of acquisition, but it can speed up the rate of acquisition.
output hypothesis
SLA The theory that output, especially spoken output, is a necessary condition for language acquisition. Contradicts Krashen's input hypothesis. Merrill Swain argues that learners have to be pushed to produce comprehensible output as well. Forces learners to pay attention to features of the grammar that they might otherwise not notice. Puts them in a better position to notice the gaps in their language knowledge. Developed out of immersion teaching in Canada.
pairwork
METHODOLOGY A form of classroom interaction in which learners work in pairs to achieve a task. Open pairs, closed pairs. Can be organized around mingling or milling, dyadic circles, parallel lines, poster carousel
paradigm
LINGUISTICS A way of displaying the different forms of a word in the form of a list or table. The relationship between elements in a chain is called a syntagmatic relationship: This little pig went to market; this little pig stayed at home. Went and stayed have the same paradigmatic relationship, as do the words market and home.
These are typically displayed in substitution tables.
paragraph
DISCOURSE A way of organizing written texts into a sequence of topic-related sentences. The division of a text into these is an indication of its macro-structure. These contribute to the overall coherence of a text.
paralinguistics
LINGUISTICS The study of non-linguistic means of vocal communication. This includes the different kinds of voice quality, as well as the use of loudness, intonation and tempo to convey particular emotions and attitudes. Also used to describe non-vocal features of communication--such as the use of gesture, facial expression and eye contact. Body language=kinesics. A related area is proxemics--the study of how speakers use and interpret variations in interpersonal distance, posture and touch, during face-to-face communication.
parameter
SLA One of the 2 components of Chomsky's universal grammar. Different languages construct phrases differently. The limited choice of variants is controlled by ____s. These are switched to one setting or another when the child is first exposed to language data. English is head-first (verbs before their complements). The choice between head-first and head-last is governed by a ____. Principles are universal, but ___s are language-specific. Learning a second language involves learning its particular ___ settings.
parsing
GRAMMAR The process of analyzing sentences into their component parts. Once a staple activity in traditional grammar teaching. Also the term used to describe the largely unconscious mental processes by which a reader or listener works out the grammatical structure of sentences or utterances.
participle
GRAMMAR Non-finite forms of verbs. That is, they don't show contrasts of tense, number or person, and they can't occur alone as the main verb of the sentence. There are two types: present and past. Generally, present ___ expresses the course of a process; past ___ describes its result or effects.
passive
GRAMMAR Contrasts with active, and together they make up the system called voice. Voice is the way that the relationship between the subject and the object of the verb can be changed without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. Many reasons for this: to distribute information according to what is not known and what is known. Only transitive verbs can take this voice. Much more common in written language.
long passive
GRAMMAR A passive construction followed by a by-phrase, identifying the agent.
short passive
GRAMMAR A passive construction without a by-phrase. Used when the agent is not known, is obvious or because the speaker doesn't wish to identify the agent.
pause filler
DISCOURSE A word or sound used to avoid frequent, long or silent pauses. Used to maintain fluency.
perfect
GRAMMAR One of the two verb aspects in English, the other being the progressive. It combines with tense. The basic meaning is 'before--and connected to--a point in time.' At least 2 reasons to view an event in this retrospective way:
1. although finished, it is still relevant.
2. to indicate that an event is unfinished. Why it often combines with expressions of duration.
personalization
METHODOLOGY When someone uses language to talk about their own knowledge, experience and feelings. Good preparation for the kinds of situations of genuine language use that learners might encounter outside the classroom. Influenced by humanistic approaches, which give it more coherent rationale and suggest a broader range of activity types. Creates better classroom dynamics. The mental and emotional effort that is involved in finding personal associations with a language item is likely to add cognitive and affective depth.
phatic language
DISCOURSE Language whose purpose is to smooth the conduct of social relations. Unlike transactional language, this language has an interpersonal function. Typically formulaic, as in the case of greetings, and is a characteristic of what is called small talk. Plays a very important role in the formation and maintenance of social groupings.
phoneme
PHONOLOGY One of the distinctive sounds of a particular language. It is not any sound, but it is a sound that, to speakers of a language, cannot be replaced with another sound without causing a change in meaning.
allophone
PHONOLOGY A phonetic variation of the same phoneme. Does not affect meaning.
phonetics
PHONOLOGY The science of speech sounds, including the ways that these sounds are produced, transmitted and received. Language teaching is less concerned with this than phonology.
phonics
METHODOLOGY An approach to the teaching of L1 reading that is based on the principle of identifying sound-letter relationships and using this knowledge to 'sound out' unfamiliar words when reading. Has been criticized because it encourages an exclusively bottom-up approach to reading, ignoring the value of recognizing whole word shapes, or using context clues to decode new words. Contrasts with more holistic, top-down approaches to teaching literacy, such as those advocated in whole language learning. In second language teaching, only really applies to young learners.
phonological core
PHONOLOGY The name given to those features of pronunciation that are considered essential in order to be understood when speaking English as an International Language. Features that are crucial in ensuring intelligibility between non-native speakers of English. Includes the following features (as proposed by Jennifer Jenkins):
most consonant sounds
consonant clusters at beginnings of words, but not necessarily the end
vowel length distinctions (long vs. short vowels)
nuclear stress (correct placement of stress in an utterance)
phonology
PHONOLOGY The study of the sound system of a particular language, and how this system is used by its speakers to express meaning. Describes the abstract system that allows the speakers of a language to distinguish meaning from mere verbal noise. Concerned with both segmental (smallest units of speech) and suprasegmental (larger elements) features, such as stress, rhythm and intonation (sometimes called prosody of speech).
phrasal verb
GRAMMAR A combination of a verb and one or two particles. The particle is either an adverb or a preposition, or both. Four types:
prepositional verbs: V + Prep. particle + object 'Can you deal with it?'
intransitive phrasal verbs: V + adv. particle 'A storm blew up.'
transitive phrasal verbs: V + adv. particle + object 'I'll pick you up at 8.'
phrasal prepositional verbs: V + adv. particle + prep. + object 'We've run out of gas.'
phrase
GRAMMAR A unit of one or more words that form a single element of a clause structure. It occupies the level on the grammatical hierarchy between individual words and clauses. 5 types, each associated with one of the 5 word classes: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition.
face
DISCOURSE The desire to be appreciated (called positive __) or the desire not to be imposed upon (negative ___).
positive politeness
DISCOURSE Social behavior which expresses positive attitudes to other people. Can take the form of thanking, paying compliments, showing agreement, using terms of address that increase the hearer's sense of importance, using terms of familiarity that imply a close friendship, even if there isn't one.
negative politeness
DISCOURSE Social behavior which avoids imposing on others. Achieved by saying please or acknowledging imposition and then apologizing.
face threatening acts
DISCOURSE Requests and invitations are these because they expose both the speaker and the addressee to the risk of a refusal. Often prefaced by a question which gives the addressee a let-out.
polysemy
VOCABULARY "Many meanings." Refers to the case where one word has more than one related meaning. Thus, the word "chip" can mean 1) a piece of deep-fried potato, 2) a small piece of wood, 3) an electronic component. The words all have a common, core meaning.
portfolio
TESTING A collection of original work that is put together by a student for the purposes of assessment. It may include samples of classwork, homework, or even audio/video recordings. May also include some form of self-assessment or reflection.
possibility
FUNCTION Degrees of likelihood of past, present and future events and situations. Degrees range from certainty, through probability, to impossibility. Expressed by:
modal verbs (may, could)
adverbials (perhaps, maybe, probably)
adjectives (likely, possible)
nouns (chance, likelihood)
A distinction is made between factual ___ and theoretical ___.
The beach may be crowded. vs. The beach can be crowded.
practice
METHODOLOGY To do something a number of times in order to gain control of it. Fundamental to cognitive learning theory. Through ___, a skill becomes automatic. Sociocultural learning theory also finds room for __: performing a skill with the assistance of someone who is good at it can help in the appropriation of the skill.
Different types:
Controlled: can be controlled in language or in interaction. Maintains a focus on accuracy and pre-empts or corrects errors.
Free: allows learners a measure of creativity, and the opportunity to integrate the new item into their existing language 'pool.'
mechanical: form of controlled where the focus is less on the meaning of an item than on manipulating its component parts.
meaningful: requires learners to display some understanding of what the item that they are using actually means.
communicative: learners interacting to complete some kind of task
receptive: involve the learners in identifying, selecting, or discriminating between language items but not actually producing them.
productive: learners have to produce the target items.
pragmatics
LINGUISTICS The study of how language is used and interpreted by its learners in real-world situations.
pragmatic competence
LINGUISTICS The knowledge that language users have that enables them to take contextual factors into account when using and interpreting language.
prescriptive grammar
LINGUISTICS A manual that states rules for how language shoudl be used, rather than how it is used. Many traditional grammars were of this type, and most manuals of correct usage and style guides still are. This type of grammar is considered at best a curiosity and at worst reactionary.
presentation
METHODOLOGY The stage of a lesson in which a new language item--typically a grammar structure, but can also be vocabulary, pronunciation or features of discourse--is introduced to the learners. Can be either deductive or inductive. Aimed at matching a language form with a meaning. Should normall include some check on the learners' understanding (CCQs). Should be a short stage of the lesson, to allow maximum time for communicative practice.
priming
LINGUISTICS The process by which, through repeated encounters, a word gathers particular associations. These associations may be with other words, as is the case with collocations. Or may be semantic associations (particular meanings), colligtions (grammatical patterns). These patterns are strengthened through repeated encounters.
lexical priming
LINGUISTICS First elaborated by Michael Hoey, suggests that learning a language is essentially learning the primings of its words. This includes its grammar, which itself is the accumulated effect o the primings of function words. According to this approach, learners need massive exposure to input, and guidance in extracting patterns from it.
proficiency
SLA The degree of skill with which a learner can use the language.
progressive
GRAMMAR One of the two verb aspects in English. Combines with tense to tell us what an action is/was like. The event is viewed as being 'in progress' (in the present or in the past, depending on the tense). Not usually possible with stative verbs.
project work
METHODOLOGY The preparation and presentation of a project, either by an individual or (more usually) a group. The rationale is essentially the same as TBL. The preparation of these usually extends over more than one lesson.
pronoun
GRAMMAR The relatively small word class of words that can be used to substitute for a noun or a noun phrase. They include:
personal pronouns
possessive pronouns
demonstrative pronouns
interrogative pronouns
relative pronouns
indefinite pronouns
reflexive pronouns
reciprocal pronouns
quantifiers
They aid in the overall cohesion of a text.
pronunciation teaching
PHONOLOGY The general term for that part of language classes and courses that deals with aspects of phonology in English. Includes segmental and suprasegmental features. Can be either integrated or segregated. Integrated=dealt with as part of the teaching of skills of grammar and vocabulary, or of speaking and listening. Segregated=treated in isolation.
Pre-emptive or reactive.
quanitifiers
GRAMMAR Words or phrases which specify quantity or amount. They either precede nouns (as determiners) or stand on their own (as pronouns). The choice of these is often determined by whether the noun that follows is countable or uncountable; and if, countable whether it is singular or plural. These can be categorized as being:
inclusive (all, both, each, every)
an indefinite quantity (some, several, any)
a large quantity (most, much, lots of)
a small quantity (a few, a little, a bit of)
a comparative quantity (more, less)
negative quantities (no, neither, none)
numbers
partitives (a piece, a bottle)
question
GRAMMAR The basic distinction between asking and telling. This is the main way of performing the asking function. Contrasts with statements. Classified as:
yes-no
wh
alternative (Shall, Did)
tag
declarative: "You're sure you're okay?"
rhetorical
indirect and reported
Basic operation in forming questions in English is the inversion of the subject and the (first) auxiliary of the verb
reading
METHODOLOGY A receptive skill, but it doesn't mean that it's passive. It's an active, even interactive process. Learners need to be able to decode the letters, words and grammatical structures of the individual sentences (bottom-up processing). They also enlist top-down processes, such as drawing on discourse and schematic knowledge, as well as on immediate contextual knowledge. Involves an interaction between these different levels of knowledge, where knowledge at one level can compensate for lack of knowledge at another. Different subskills incluce:
skimming (gist)
scanning (searching for specific information and ignoring everything else)
detailed (extracting the maximum detail from a text)
aloud (a prepared speech or lecture, or a story or extract from a newspaper)
received pronunciation
PHONOLOGY The type of pronunciation of British English that is considered the regionally neutral standard. Provides the model most widely used in the teaching of British English. The argument for using this English in recent years has been challenged, especially with the growth of English as an international language.
reference
DISCOURSE The relation between language forms and things in the real world. Also has a narrower sense, and describes the relation between language forms and their referents in discourse.
Anaphoric: back reference
cataphroic: forward reference
exophoric: direct reference to the non-linguistic context
These all aid in cohesion. Deicitic terms typically have exophoric reference.
reflection
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT A key stage in an experiential learning cycle that also includes planning, action andlearning. This involves more than simply remembering. Being able to think critically about experience, to identify problems, and to 're-frame' these problems. Also a component of the action research model.
register
LINGUISTICS The way that language use varies according to variations in the context. It is a term that is used particularly by proponents of systemic functional linguistics. They argue that there is a correlation between the forms of language and features of the social context. Key factors are
the field of discourse (what is being talked or written about)
the tenor (the relationship between the participants)
the mode (whether the language is written or spoken).
These constitute the ___ variables of a situation. It is of particular relevance in the teaching of genres.
repair
DISCOURSE To correct or modify what you have just said, so as to make it more accurate or more intelligible. Can be self-initiated or other-initiated.
repetition
METHODOLOGY Underlies many language learning strategies, and it has always been considered a sound learning strategy. Audiolingualism helped make __ scientific and developed a sophisticated repertoire of drills. Post-behaviorist approaches continued to promote ___, believing that it helps fix language in the memory. The way the item is processed is more important than the number of times it is repeated.
requesting
FUNCTION Belongs to the general class of speech acts that are about getting people to do things, such as commanding, persuading, and asking favors. Most of these involve the use of modal verbs.
restructuring
SLA Responding to new information by re-organizing to accommodate it. The term in cognitive learning theory used to describe what seemed to happen to the learner's developing interlanguage system as it adapted to new input. At some point, a rule for regular past tense formation is applied to all verbs in past contexts. The system has now sped up processing, but it may result in what is called backsliding, which is what happens when the learner overapplies the rule (or overgeneralizes it). Without ____, fossilization can occur.
revision
TESTING The process of reviewing previously studied material, especially in advance of a test. The most effective forms involve revisiting previously studied material and processing it in a novel way. This should happen as soon as possible after first meeting it, and then at successively longer intervals of time.
rhythm
PHONOLOGY The way that some words are emphasized so as to give the effect of regular beats. Can be stress-timed (English) or syllable-timed (French and Spanish). Interacts with stress and intonation to help speakers organize speech into meaningful units.
accomodation
PHONOLOGY Squeezing syllables in an utterance into the same amount of time so that they occupy the same length of time.
routine
METHODOLOGY Regular procedures that impart a sense of structure, rhythm and flow to the class. Some are management-oriented, some are teaching-oriented. Expert teachers regularly use a relatively small number of these in their classes, but they are performed fluidly and purposefully. Learning to teach is primarily a case of acquiring a repertoire of these that can be adapted to different classes, levels and circumstances.
stress-timed language
PHONOLOGY Stressed syllables tend to recur at different intervals, and the intervening syllables are accommodated.
syllable-timed language
PHONOLOGY Syllables in the language are given equal length.
rubric
METHODOLOGY The set of instructions (usually written) that tells students what they have to do for a test or an exercise.
scaffolding
SLA The temporary interactional support that is given to learners while their language system is under construction. It is this support that enables them to perform a task at a level beyond their present competence. The term derives from sociocultural learning theory, which views learning as being jointly constructed. it not only provides a conversational framework, but it is believed to shape language acquisition itself.
schemata
PSYCHOLOGY The way that knowledge about a topic or a concept is represented and organized in the mind. They help us to make sense of experience, and hence they are crucial in comprehension. Also used to refer to the temporary mental picture that a reader or listener constructs when processing a text.
second language
SLA Any language that has been learned subsequent to the acquisition of the first language. The term additional language is sometimes preferred.
second language acquisition
SLA The study of how second (or additional) languages are acquired. It is a relatively new field of study, emerging in the wake of behaviorism to offer a satisfactory explanation of either first or second language acquisition.
To what extent are the processes the same as those of FLA?
Why is it seldom, if ever, as successful as FLA?
Why do some learners learn better and/or faster than others?
Why do learners make errors?
How does the L1 affect the learning of the L2?
Does instruction help? And if so, how?
Researchers use as data learner output, the input they're exposed to, age, aptitude, motivation and learning style.
3 areas account for this study: UG, cognitive learning theory and sociocultural learning theory.
self-access center
METHODOLOGY That part of a language teaching institution that is allocated to self-directed study. Popular at the height of the learner autonomy movement. Many are re-absorbed into the instution's library or turned into internet rooms.
semantics
LINGUISTICS The study of meaning, including the way words relate to the things that they refer to in the real world. In language teaching the focus is on the meaning relationship between words, such as similarity and oppositeness. Often contrasted with pragmatic meaning, in that it focuses on the literal meaning instead of the effect.
sentence
GRAMMAR the largest purely grammatical unit in a language. Everything beyond the ___ is only weakly linked in grammatical terms. In speaking, speech is sometimes broken into utterances instead.
utterance
GRAMMAR One speaker's turn or a stretch of speech between pauses, or one that falls under a single intonation contour, or one that fulfills a single function. Now generally accepted as preferable to sentence when talking about spoken language.
silent period
SLA The lengthy period of time children learning their first language go through when they simply listen before they venture their first words. Some researchers have argued that this is a necessary stage in language acquisition. It provides and opportunity to comprehend input. Methods based on this are TPR and the natural approach. Some evidence suggests that learners use this period to engage in private speech (a kind of silent or sub-vocablized rehearsal phase).
silent way
METHODOLOGY A method that was developed by Caleb Gattegno in the '60s. Normally grouped among the humanistic approaches to language learning. Gattegno believed language learning was self-initiated and self-directed. T's role was as a facilitator. Learning is largely mediated through the use of two aids: Fidel charts of color-coded sounds of the language, and cuisinaire rods--small, colored blocks of wood of varying length. Rods and charts were used to create and reflect upon basic sentence patterns. This method deliberately keeps the vocab load low. It has only ever had fringe status.
skills
METHODOLOGY A way in which language is used. Language ___ contrast with language systems. These are divided into receptive (reading and listening) and productive (speaking and writing). This division has been fundamental in course design and lesson planning. The separation into discrete skills overlooks the fact that mot communication is interactive, involving both reception and production, and often in equal measure. To separate these distorts how language is really used.
socialization
SLA The process by whcih we become members of a particular group. It means adopting--or adapting to--the values and customs of the target group. A growing school of thought views L2 learning as a process of this, not of acquisition. The dominant metaphor is that of apprenticeship, in which the learner is gradually inducted into the target culture, including its language. This makes more sense in an EFL context than and ESL one.
sociocultural learning theory
PSYCHOLOGY Comes from the pioneering work of Lev Vygotsky, a child psychologist in the 30s in the then USSR. Saw learning as a social process: through social interaction the learner is assisted from dependency toward autonomy. This theory situates the learning process firmly in its social context (as opposed to mentalism). All learning--including L1 and L2--is mediated through social and cultural activity. Mediation typically takes the form of assisted performance with scaffolding until learner is able to appropriate the knowledge. Learner graduates from a state of other-regulation to self-regulation.
zone of proximal development
PSYCHOLOGY This is the 'window of opportunity' where the learner is not yet able to solve a problem independently, but can do so with the assistance of others. A feature of sociocultural learning theory.
sociolinguistics
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The study of the way language and society are interrelated, and in particular the way different social contexts influence language use. The major contribution to language teaching was the impetus it gave to the development of the communicative approach. Descriptions of how language is used in different communities prompted scholars to re-think the goals of L2 teaching and to describe these in terms of functions rather than structures. Bilingualism, language and gender, language and power and language planning all fall under this umbrella.
songs
METHODOLOGY An entertaining and often memorable way of contextualizing language. Have inbuilt repetition, which adds to their potential as sources for incidental learning. Many display instances of high frequency idiomatic language, including formulaic language. Downside=often ungraded, colloquial, and even ungrammatical.
speaking
METHODOLOGY Generally thought to be the most important of the 4 skills. Often equated with proficiency in the language. Main difficulties include: takes place spontaneously and in real time, so planning and production overlap. If too much time is spent planning, production suffers. If too much focus on production, accuracy suffers, which could prejudice intelligibility. Speaker needs to have achieved a degree of automaticity in both planning and production. A core vocabulary of 1000-1500 high-frequency words and expressions will provide most learners with a solid basis.
speech act
DISCOURSE "Doing something" with words. Most require their purpose/illocutionary force to be inferred. The conditions that determine the appropriacy and interpretation of these are the concerns of pragmatics. Can be 1 of 5 types:
representatives: describe states or events in the world.
directives: aimed at getting people to do things.
commissives: commit the speaker to a course of action.
expressives: express feelings and attitudes.
declaratives: by uttering these, speaker changes the situation.
This theory originated in philosophy with JL Austin and John Searle.
spoken grammar
GRAMMAR Shares the same basic structure as that of written English, but because of its on-line production, there are some significant differences. Speech is built up clause by clause and phrase by phrase, rather than sentence by sentence. Utterance boundaries are less clearly defined in spoken language, and why co-ordination is preferred to subordination. Typically consists of frequent sequences of short clauses joined by and, but, then, because. In utterances, content can be added before or after (heads and tails) the main body of the message in ways that sentence grammar does not allow. Also shows a preference for direct speech rather than reported speech. There is also the use of vague language.
standard English
SOCIOLINGUISTICS The variety of English that is usually used in writing, taught in schools, and used as the model for teaching non-native speakers. Each major English-speaking country has its on variety. The linguistic features are codified in its grammar and vocabulary, including its spelling. Pronunciation may vary. There are arguments both for and against using this as the norm. For: even if not all English speakers speak it, they can understand it. There is also no real viable alternative. Against: It is too closely associated with native speakers.
stative verb
GRAMMAR Refer to states: I am curious. It's a wonderful life.
Refer to inactive emotional, cognitive or perceptual processes: I want to live. I know what you did last summer.
These cannot normally be used in the continuous.
stress
PHONOLOGY The effect of emphasizing certain syllables by increasing their loudness, length or pitch. Can be at word level or sentence level. Learners start working this out on the basis of intuition, but highlighting it can be a useful memory aid. There is some evidence that words are stored and recalled according to their 'shape.'
structure
LINGUISTICS A pattern that a language has for generating specific instances. Now loosely used to mean any grammar item that appears on a syllabus, and in particular the different combinations of tense and aspect. The communicative approach tried to replace these with functions, but these are easier than functions to grade.
style
LINGUISTICS A usually deliberate choice of a particular way of saying or writing something. There is often more than one way of conveying the same message. The choice is determined by 1) specific contextual factors; 2) a particular effect the person wants to achieve. Ranges from formal to informal. These choices affect both grammar and vocabulary. Can include literary, old-fashioned, humorous and medical. If these are related to particular fields, they're called registers.
stylistics
LINGUISTICS The study of style, or the way language is used to create particular effects, especially those associated with the expressive and literary uses of language. Rather than simply interpreting styles, it aims to explain them by employing the concepts and analytical techniques of linguistics and applying these to literary texts. Has a lot in common with genre analysis.
subordination
GRAMMAR One way of linking clauses so that one clause is embedded in another. This embedded clause is said to be dependent on the other clause. The conjunctions when, even if, although, because, while, after, unless are all used for this.
There are 3 clauses:
adverbial: act like an adverbial in a sentence and give extra info about time, manner, reason, conditions, etc.
relative: attached to a noun phrase, which they modify by providing extra information.
reported: report statements, questions, thoughts and which typically begin with that or if or a wh word.
substitution
DISCOURSE The replacing of a noun phrase or a whole clause by a single word. This is done in order to avoid repetition, or to make a text more cohesive.
substitution table
METHODOLOGY A way of displaying the way the different elements of a structure relate to one another, both on a horizontal axis, and on a vertical one. Horizontally (syntagmatic), the table displays the order of elements. Vertically (paradigmatic), it displays the items that may be substituted for one another. These were a popular aid to learning in audiolingualism, since they displayed the structural patterns of the language.
suggesting
FUNCTION Attempting to influence the behavior of people. Less forceful than a command, although it may be a way of disguising a command.
suggestopaedia
METHODOLOGY A method that applies principles of suggestion to teaching. Georgi Lozanov believes that, in the right conditions, the human mind is highly suggestible and capable of prodigious feats of learning (superlearning or accelerated learning). Any negative feelings associated with learning need to be eliminated by a process called de-suggestion, which involves background music, adopting fictitious names and personae, and the T in control. It is assumed that learning takes place subliminally. Emphasis on affect makes it highly humanistic. It anticipated NLP.
syllable
PHONOLOGY A unit of pronunciation that is typically larger than a sound but smaller than a word. Consist of vowel sounds or combinations of vowels and consonants. Some consonants can form these on their own. It is difficult to say where one ends and another begins.
syllabus
METHODOLOGY An item-by-item description of the teaching content of a course. On the basis of this a timetable/scheme of work can be drawn up. Helps specify what should be tested. A distinction is sometimes made between this and the curriculum. The ___ is one way that the curriculum is operationalized. To design this, involves at least 2 sets of decisions: selecting and grading. Tradition also plays a part in the design. There are many kinds of these:
semantic, structural, topic-based, situational, task-based, test-based, genre-driven, multi-layered.
synonym
VOCABULARY A word that has the same meaning as, or a very similar meaning to, another one. This relationship contrasts with other sense relations, such as antonymy and hyponymy. Words may have a similar meaning, but differ in style, in their geographical distribution, in their connotations or in their collocations.
syntax
GRAMMAR The rules for sequencing words so as to show their relationships of meaning within sentences. Contrasts with morphology. Together these make up what is traditionally known as grammar. Traditionally taught by the process of parsing sentences.
systemic functional linguistics
LINGUSTICS A model for linguistic analysis developed by Michael Halliday. It describes language as a network of a small fixed set of choices. It also describes the conditions for choosing among each set of choices. Identifies language as having 3 main (mega) functions that are realized at every level of analysis:
experiential (ideational): language expresses the way we experience the world.
interpersonal: language is used to act upon the world and to interact with other people.
textual: language can be used to make connections between a text and its context, or to make connections within the text.
Underlying this model of language is the claim that the grammatical system is determined by the social functions for which langauge is used.
task
METHODOLOGY A classroom activity whose focus is on communicating meaning. In contrast, practising a pre-selected item of language for its own sake would not be a valid __ objective. In the performance of the __, learners are expected to make use of their own language resources. May be receptive or productive and may be done individually or in pairs or small groups.
Factors which influence the degree of difficulty include:
linguistic factors: How complex is the language learners will need to draw on? How much help will they get with their language needs?
cognitive factors: Does the task require the processing of complex data? Is the task type familiar to learners?
performance factors: Do the learners have to interact in real time in order to do the task? Do they have time to rehearse? Do they have to 'go public?'
task-based learning
METHODOLOGY An approach that makes the task the basic unit for planning and teaching. Rationale originated in the communicative approach, particularly in the deep-end version. You learn a language by using it. One of the first experiments took place in the 70s in southern India (Bangalore project; N.S. Prabhu). Classroom instruction involved the demonstration (by the T) and the performance (by the Learners) of these tasks. Prabhu rejected any focus on form, either before, during or after the task, on the grounds that it might detract from meaning. Some argue that feedback should happen pre, during or post task. Shares many principles with whole language learning. It has been more theoretically influential than practically.
teacher development
PROFESSIONAL Refers to the ongoing professional growth of teachers, particularly that which takes place after their initial training. May take the form of in-service training of a more formal kind, such as attendance on course. Incorporates cycles of classroom practice and reflection, which might include:
a mentoring system
classroom observation
keeping a teaching journal
action research
locally-based workshops and seminars
guided reading, and discussion
Often contrasted with teacher training. TT has more technical goals. ____ has a more holistic orientation, aimed at developing the T's capacity for self-directed growth and professional well-being.
teacher talk
METHODOLOGY The term used to describe the variety of language used by teachers when addressing learners. Shares qualities with the way speakers often adapt their language when talking to non-native speakers and the way that parents talk to children. Generally refers to the way that teachers interact with their learners. T provides a source of input as well as feedback. Has a number of different functions:
managing: giving instructions, nominating turns
explaining: giving definitions, presenting grammar
checking understanding
modelling
giving feedback
eliciting
providing input
interpersonal talk
Being intelligible as a teacher is less a question of grading language than of being sensitive to, and know how to resolve, misunderstandings.
tense
GRAMMAR Refers to the way that verbs are inflected to express a relation with time. The relation between time and __ is not an exact match. Grammatical ___ and notional time are not the same thing. There are only really 2 of these in English: the present and the past. This combines with aspect to create the variety of verb structures in English that are commonly mistaken as its different ___s. A focus on them has traditionally dominated course design.
placement test
TESTING A form of assessment given at the entry of a course to ascertain a learner's level.
diagnostic test
TESTING A form of assessment given before the entry of a course to identify a learner's particular needs (as in needs analysis).
progress test
TESTING A form of assessment administered periodically during a course to monitor the learning process. Also called formative tests. These are set because they encourage revision.
achievement test
TESTING A form of assessment administered at the end of a course to monitor the learning process. Also called summative tests.
criterion-referenced test
TESTING Test in which the candidate has to achieve a certain agreed standard in order to pass.
norm-referenced test
TESTING Test in which there is no criterion for passing, but a candidate's results are interpreted in relation to the results of other candidates.
validity
TESTING When a test measures accurately what it is intended to measure. Face, content and construct are different factors to consider.
reliability
TESTING When a test gives consistent results. Often an effect of the test design. Also at risk the more subjective the scoring is.
integrative test
TESTING Test that combines various components of a skill.
discrete-point test
TESTING Test that tests individual components in isolation.
practicability
TESTING How easily a test is able to be administered.
backwash
TESTING The way a test affects the classroom teaching that leads up to it.
test-teach-test
METHODOLOGY An approach to lesson design in which decisions about what to teach are based on the way learners perform particular tasks. Also called a deep-end strategy, this approach grew out of the communicative approach. In this kind of lesson, the T first diagnoses learners' strengths and weaknesses in some sort of communicative activity. T then teaches the language they need to communicate more effectively. Finally, learners repeat the initial task (or something similar). Focused on learners' immediate needs, rather than a theoretical notion of their competence. A precursor to TBL.
text
DISCOURSE A continuous piece of spoken or written language. Normally consists of a number of linked sentences, and has a distinctive internal structure and an identifiable communicative function. Classified into genres. These are not as rule-bound as sentences, there is the expectation that they will be coherent. It is useful to teach language through ___s, rather than apart from them.
theme
DISCOURSE The way messages are constructed. This is the 'point of departure' of the message. It typically expresses known (or given) information, often information that is carried over from a previous sentence. The rest of the sentence is called the rheme, and constitutes the new information.
timetable
METHODOLOGY Also called a scheme of work. The plan for a sequence of lessons that takes place over a fixed period of time. Translates the information contained in the syllabus into a series of lesson plans. Decisions need to be made based on amount and distribution of time available, intensive or part-time course, and how best to allocate the time.
topic
DISCOURSE What the sentence is about. ___ and comment often correspond to what, in grammatical terms, are called subject and predicate. They also correspond to theme and rheme. Not always the subject. Also a term used in discourse and conversation analysi to refer to what people are talking about.
topicalization
DISCOURSE The process of moving an element to the front of a sentence so that it functions as the topic.
total physical response
METHODOLOGY A language-teaching method that was developed by James Asher in the early 70s. Like the natural approach, it is a comprehension approach, based on the silent period. This method is based on the way that young children receive comprehensible input in their L1. Involves a sequence of commands that L1 learners see being demonstrated. Belongs firmly in the holistic camp. As a method, it's had only marginal impact, but as a classroom technique it's particularly suited to young learners.
transfer
SLA The effect that one language--particularly the L1--has on another. Can occur at all levels--pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse. Used to be called interference, since, according to behaviorist theory, all instances of this were seen as negative. Now it is accepted that this can be positive as well, particularly as a communication strategy. It's one of many factors that affects a learner's interlanguage.
transitivity
GRAMMAR The capacity of a verb to take an object. Verbs with this capacity can be used in passive constructions. Some verbs can take two objects: a direct and an indirect object. These verbs are called ditransitive: 'Give me some light.' Verbs can be used both ___ and in____. These are sometimes called ergative verbs. Linking verbs (be, feel, seem) take complements, so they don't have this capacity.
translation
METHODOLOGY To produce a version of a written text in another language. In spoken texts, this is called interpretation. Has been central to some teaching methods (grammar-translation) and frowned upon by others (direct method).
CONS:
encourages dependence on the L1, encourages the notion of equivalence between languages (no 2 are alike), L1 system interferes with development o L2 system, the 'easy' approach and therefore less memorable, the 'natural way' of acquiring a language is through direct experience/exposure, not feasible in classes of mixed nationalities
PROS:
new knowledge (L2) is constructed on the basis of existing knowledge (L1), languages have more similarities than differences and translation encourages the positive transfer of similarities, a time-efficient means of conveying meaning, an integral part of being a proficient L2 user (contributes to overall pluralingualism), a natural way of exploiting the inherent bilingualism of language classes.
universal grammar
LINGUISTICS The name given to the theory that all languages share certain fundamental principles. Adopted by Noam Chomsky in order to argue that we are genetically programmed with an innate language leaning faculty (language acquisition device). These principles are adjusted for individual languages according to choices that are governed by a narrow range of options (parameters), the choice of one of which determines a whole proliferation of grammatical features. Proponents argue that only this theory can explain the highly sophisticated rule systems that children develop in a relatively short time. Critics argue that it is a 'magical' faculty whose existence hasn't been proven.
uptake
SLA What learners report to have learned from a language lesson. Typically doesn't match what the teacher intended to teach. Can vary from learner to learner. Factors that enhance this are salience (how much emphasis was given to an item or topic) and source (whether the item or topic originated in the teacher or in another learner). Those topics generated by other learners foster better ___.
usage
LINGUISTICS The way a community actually uses a language, as described in descriptive grammars of the language or in books of language ___. Also refers to a person's abstract knowledge of the rules of grammar (competence). This contrasts with use--using those rules to achieve some communicative purpose.
usage-based acquisition
SLA A way of describing those theories of second language acquisition that argue that acquisition occurs primarily through engaging in communication. The bulk of learning is implicit and there is a direct effect of the frequency of encounters with an item. Learner's grammar is derived from frequent encounters with individual instances (exemplars), sometimes called exemplar theory. Learner's grammar emerges, so it is also known as emergentism. Rejects mentalist views instead embracing general learning processes: pattern extraction, tallying, association learning, chunking and rehearsal.
This theory is associated with connectionist models of learning.
vague language
DISCOURSE A common feature of spoken language. It performs an important interpersonal function in that it allows speakers to avoid either committing themselves to a proposal or sounding too assertive. Can also be placeholder words used to substitute for more specific terms that the speaker either has forgotten or doesn't want to mention. Also a useful communication strategy that compensates for gaps in lexical knowledge.
variability
SLA A characteristic of learners' interlanguage in which they use more than one way of expressing the same idea, more or less interchangeably. May be systematic or free. Systematic=preferred to another in certain conditions, such as when learner is being more careful. Free=random and unsystematic. Supports the belief that a learner's interlanguage is inherently unstable. ___ also exists across learners. This could be influenced by attitudes, L1, motivation, learning style, exposure amount/type, etc.
vocabulary teaching
METHODOLOGY Teaching the area of language learning that is concerned with word knowledge. In audiolingualism, this was subordinated to the teaching of grammar structures. Words were simply there to fill slots in the sentence patterns. Corpus linguistics, discourse analysis and the lexical approach started to blur the boundaries between grammar and vocabulary. The lexical approach in particular concerned itself both wit the selection of items and the type of items. Learners need opportunities for incidental learning and constant recycling of newly-learned words is essential.
voiced sound
PHONOLOGY One which is produced while the vocal cords are vibrating. All English vowels are ___.
weak form
PHONOLOGY The non-stressed pronunciation of some words. Most function words in English (of, at, to, can, must, was, have, and) have 2 possible pronunciations, depending on whether they are stressed or not. Most of these ___ ___ involve replacement of the vowel by schwa, although some consonant deletion can also occur. The use of these helps in achieving an English-sounding rhythm.
webquest
METHODOLOGY An educational task that is carried out by means of the internet. The aim of this is to focus on processing information rather than simply copying it, and thereby to encourage analytic and critical thinking. Developed in 1995 by Bernie Dodge and Tom March. Fits into the frameworks of both project work and TBL.
whole language learning
METHODOLOGY An educational approach to the teaching of literacy. Its guiding principle is that language skills are best learned in authentic, meaningful situations. Teacher=facilitator. Core principles:
learning goes from whole to part
4 skills develop together
lessons should be learner-centered because learning is the active construction of knowledge
learning takes places in social interaction
Emphasizes the social and cultural dimension of education. Aims to promote learner's self-realization through learning. Found in a process approach to the teaching of writing and an activity-based approach to teaching young learners.
word
VOCABULARY The smallest language item that can occur on its own. The concept has been refined to distinguish between:
word forms: written or spoken words that are spelled or pronounced as single units.
lexical items (lexemes): the way words are represented in a dictionary: take, to take, taking.
word class
GRAMMAR A group of words that, from a grammatical point of view, behave in the same way. The ___ of pronoun, determiner, preposition and conjunction are called closed classes because they cannot readily be added to. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are open.
word family
VOCABULARY A group of words that share the same root but have different affixes: care, careful, careless, carefree, uncaring, carer. A base word plus its inflections and its most common derivatives.
word formation
VOCABULARY The process by which new words are created out of elements of existing ones. In English, there are two main processes by which this is achieved: affixation and compounding. Affixation=adding prefixes or suffixes. Compounding=the joining together of two or more words.
Other ways include: conversion (a word changes its word class without any change of form), clipping (when a word is shortened), blends (2 words merge to form 1), abbreviations and acronyms.
word order
GRAMMAR The way words are sequenced, particularly with regard to the sequencing of elements in a clause or sentence. A frequent source of learner error. As an uninflected language, English ___ ___ is generally less flexible than that of many languages.
world Englishes
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Varieties of English (also called nativized varieties) that are spoken in countries such as India, Nigeria and Singapore, where, for historical reasons, English plays an important second language role. Deliberately challenges the notion that English is still 'owned' by its native speakers, or that there is a universal World Standard English.
writing
METHODOLOGY A productive skill that involves a hierarchy of sub-skills, including:
produce grammatically accurate sentences
select and maintain an appropriate style
signal the direction that the message is taking
Writers need an extensive knowledge base, not only at the level of vocabulary and grammar, but at the level of connected discourse.
product approach to writing
METHODOLOGY An approach in which the focus is exclusively on producing a text that reproduces the model learners are initially given. Involves analyzing and imitating models of particular text types. Each of the features is practiced in isolation, then recombined in tasks aimed first at reproducing the original and then at producing similar texts incorporating different content.
process approach to writing
METHODOLOGY Approach in which writers do not in fact start with a clear idea of the finished product. The text emerges out of a creative process which includes: planning, drafting and re-drafting, reviewing, publishing. It's a more organic sequence of classroom activities. Has a lot in common with the communicative approach in that the writer interacts with a reader for a particular purpose.
genre-based approach to writing
METHODOLOGY An approach that is similar to a product approach. Starts with a model text (authentic) that is subjected to analysis and replication. These are closely associated with their contexts of use, and they are analyzed in functional terms as much as in linguistic ones. Has been particularly influential in the teaching of academic writing.
teaching young learners
METHODOLOGY Teaching children of pre-primary and primary school age. Can sometimes include adolescents. Has a long history. The special characteristics of this group can be broken down as cognitive, affective and social.
cognitive factors: relatively limited world knowledge, still developing concepts and memory, short attention span, preference for holistic learning, etc.
affective factors: lack of self-consciousness about expressing themselves inaccurately, need for encouragement and support, intrinsically motivated.
social factors: lack of social skills, dependency on the teacher.
General rules:
provide opportunities for learning through doing
situate the content in the world of the learners
plan short, varied activity cycles
systematically recycle language in different contexts
provide plenty of comprehensible input
scaffold the learners' talk
establish regular routines
Sociocultural learning theory offers the most support for the above principles.