42 terms

Flag Book Ch. 8

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Terms in this set (...)

James Monroe
The election of this person as president in 1816 inaugurated what one newspaper editorial characterized as an 'Era of Good Feelings'
Era of Good feelings
This term gained wide currency and was later adopted by historians to describe Monroe's two terms in office.
Sectionalist
These kind of tensions over slavery were becoming ever more apparent. Moreover, a sense of political unity was illusory since antagonistic factions within the Dem-Rep party would soon split in two.
Cultural Nationalism
Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American Society, from art to schoolbooks. heroes of the revolution were enshrined in the paintings by Gilbert Stuart, Charles Willson Peale, and John Trumbull.
Economic Nationalism
Parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nations economy. Subsidizing internal improvements (the building of roads and canals) was one aspect of the movement. Protecting budding US industries from European competition was a second aspect
Tariff of 1816
Now in peacetime, these American manufacturers feared that British goods would be dumped on American markets and take away much of their business. Congress raised these tariffs for the express purpose of protecting US manufacturers from competition
Protective Tariff
The tariff of 1816 was the first example of this kind of tariff.
Henry Clay's American System
Henry Clay of Kentucky, a leader of the House of Representatives, proposed a comprehensive method for advancing the nation's economic growth. His plan, known as this, consisted of three parts: (1) protective tariffs, (2) a national bank, and (3) internal improvements
Second Bank of the Unite States
Two parts of Clay's system were already in place in 1816, the last year of James Madison's presidency. Congress in that year adopted a protective tariff and also chartered this, the first of which had been allowed to expire in 1811.
The panic of 1819
The Era of Good Feelings was fractured in 1819 by the first major financial panic since the constitution had been ratified. Many state banks closed and unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt increased sharply. As a result of the bank panic and depression, nationalistic believes were shaken.
John marshall
This federalist official continued to have major influence throughout the years of Dem-Rep ascendancy. He had been appointed to the Supreme Court in 1800 by federalist President John Adams and was still leading the Court as its Chief Justice. His decisions consistently favored the central government and the rights of property agains the advocates of states rights.
Fletcher v. Peck
In a case involving land fraud in Georgia, Marshall concluded that a state could not pass a legislation invalidating a contract. This was the first time that the supreme court declared a state law to be unconstitutional.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
This case involved a law of New hampshire that changed Dartmouth College from a privately chartered college into a public institution arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state.
McCulloch v. maryland
Maryland attempted to tax the Second bank of the united states located in Maryland. Marshall ruled that a state could not tax a federal institution because "the power to tax is the power to destroy" and federal law are supreme over state laws
Implied Power
Marshall ruled that, even though no clause in the Constitution specifically mentions a national bank, the constitution gave the federal government this to create one
Gibbons v. Ogden
Could the state of New York grant a monopoly to a steamboat company if that action conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress? In ruling that New York monopoly was unconstitutional, Marshall established the federal government's broad control of interstate commerce.
Tallmadge Amendment
Representative James Tallmadge from New York ignited the debate about the Missouri question by proposing an amendment to the bill for Missouris admission. The amendment called for (1) prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and (2) requiring the children Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25.
Missouri Compromise
Both houses passed these bills, and President Monroe added his signature in March 1820 t what became known as this. The bills (1) admitted Missouri as a slave-holding state, (2) admitted Maine as a free state, and (3) prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36º 30'
Stephen Decatur
During Madison;s presidency, when problems with the Barbary pirates again develop, a fleet under this person was sent in 1815 to force the rulers of North Africa to allow American shipping the free use of the Mediterranean
Rush-Bagot Agreement
During Monroe's first year as president, British and American negotiators agreed to a major disarmament pact. This agreement strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes.
Treaty of 1818
Improved relations between the US and Britain continued in a treaty that provided for (1) shared fishing rights off the coast of NewFoundLand; (2) joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years; and (3) the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel, thus establishing the western US Canada Boundary line
Andrew Jackson
The chaotic conditions permitted groups of Seminoles, runaway slaves, and white outlaws to conduct raids into US territory and retreat to safety across the Florida border. These disorders gave Monroe and this person an opportunity to take military action in Spanish florida, a territory long coveted by American expansionists
Florida Purchase Treaty
Spain, worried that the United States would seize Florida and preoccupied with troubles in Latin America, decided to get the best possible terms for Florida. By treaty in 1819, Spain turned over all of its possessions in Florida and its own claims in the Oregon Territory to the US. In exchange, the US agreed to assume $5 million in claims against Spain and give up any US territorial claims to the Spanish province of Texas
Monroe Doctrine
This asserted "as a principle in which the rights and interests of the US are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization buy any European powers"
Monroe declared further that the US opposed attempted by a European power to interfere in the affair of any republic in the Western Hemisphere
Lancaster Turnpike
This built in the 1790s connected Philadelphia with the rich farmlands around Lancaster. Its success stimulated the construction of other privately built and relatively short toll roads that by the mid 1820s connected most of the country's major cities.
National or Cumberland Road
Construction of highways that crossed state lines was unusual. One notable exception was this, a paved highway and major route to the west extending more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois.
Erie Canal
The completion of this in New York state in 1825 was a major event in linking the economies of western farms and eastern cities. The success of this canal in stimulating economic growth touched off a frenzy of canal building in other states.
Steamboats
The success of mechanized steam powered travel began in 1807 with the successful voyage up the Hudson river of the Clermont, which was this form of transportation
Robert Fulton
Developed the Clermont, a steamboats which traveled up the hudson river
Railroads
Even more rapid and reliable links between cities became possible with the building of the first of these in the late 1820s
Eli Whitney
The most famous of hundreds of Americans whose long hours of tinkering in their worships resulted in the cotton gin.
Cotton Gin
Resulted in improved manufacturing of cotton; invented by Eli Whitney
Interchangeable parts
Became the basis for mass production methods in the new northern factories; devised by Eli Whitney
Corporations
New York passed a law that made it easier for a business to become this and raise capital by selling shares of stock
Factory System
As this expanded, it encouraged the growth of financial businesses such as banking and insurance
Samuel Slater
When he emigrated from Britain, he took with him the British secrets for building cotton spinning machines, and he put this knowledge to work by helping establish the first uS factory in 1791
Textile mills
These in Lowell Massachusetts, recruited young farm woman and housed them in company dormitories.
Lowell System
At first, factory owners had difficulty finding workers for their mills. Factory life could not compete with the lure of cheap land in the West. In response to this difficulty, textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, recruited other factories imitated this system.
Unions
These were organized in major cities as early as the 1790s and increased in number as the factory system took hold.
Ten hour workday
A prime goal of the early unions was to reduce workdays to these
Specialization and Industrialization
Combined with the growth of cities and the development of modern capitalism meant the end of self sufficient households and a growing interdependence among people. These changes combined to bring about a revolution in the marketplace
Revolution in the Marketplace
The farmers fed the workers in the cities who in turn provided farm families with an array of mass produced goods.