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Bio Stats Midterm Study Guide
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Terms in this set (20)
What proportion of a set of observations lies between the 1st and 3rd quartiles?
50%
The mode for a set of heights of students (grouped into 4cm classes) is determined. What exactly is the mode?
the height that occurs most frequently
What does a critical value of a test statistic represent?
the value of the test statistic beyond which you would reject the null hypothesis
When we test hypotheses, we come up with a ____ hypothesis that specifies a particular value of a test statistic. If our observed data are unlikely under this hypothesis, the ____ will be low and we reject this hypothesis
Null, P value
A z-score is:
the number of standard deviations above or below the mean of a distribution
discrete
only integer values
ex: number of cancer patients in a specific year
continuous
take on any value
ex: weight
For the binomial distribution, what is the expected relationship betwwen p and o^2
as p increases to 0.5, o^2 increases, but as p increases beyond 0.5, o^2 decreases
Type I error refers to
rejecting a null hypothesis that is true
Type II error refers to
not rejecting a false H0
What affects Type II error?
1. biological effect size
2. std dev of pop'n sample size
3. type I error rates
Which of the following would decrease the Type I error rate of a hypothesis test?
a. increased sample size
b. increased type II error rate
c. a larger effect size
d. a, b, and c
e. none of the above
e
Probability of Type I error
Pr[t>/= cv]
Probability of Type II error
Pr[t>/= abs (cv)]
what is Type I error determined by?
alpha (sig level)
If observed value is outside critical value...
it would be rejected
what determines alpha? significance level?
we do. decision is made before the study.
distribution equation
distribution = s / sqrt(n)
decreasing alpha in type I, ___ alpha in type II
increase
if alpha is smaller,___
width of graph is narrower
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