32 terms

AP World History Chapter 8

African Civilization and the Spread of Islam AP World Civilizations Third Edition
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stateless societies
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
Maghrib
the part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Eastern North Africa
Ifriqiya
Term used by the Romans for Africa.
Almoravids
followers of the Great Puritanical Reformist Movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; reject Sufis; very violent (launch a series of jihads, or holy wars); 11th century
Almohadis
followers of a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; followed the example of the Almoravids; 1130
Copts
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; the Christians of Egypt
Ethiopian Kingdom
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.
Sudanic States
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power, from the Senegal river to the Niger River. The states were ruled by a patriarch or council of elders. There was a core territorial area and then surrounding subordinate ones. The rulers of sudanic states were considered sacred and separate from their subjects. when islam spread to this area, only Royals practiced it and it was not spread to the people.
Sundiata
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes; a brilliant leader whose exploits were the foundation of a great oral tradition (griots); "the Lion Prince"
Sahel
extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara
juula
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa
griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Ibn Batuta
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
Timbuktu
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali (port city). As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
Sharia
Islamic law; , the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
The Periplus of the Erythraenian Sea
a 1st century account of the Indian Ocean that mentioned some ports in east Africa but was vague about whether the inhabitants were Africans or immigrants from the Arabian peninsula.
Zanj
Arabic term for the East African coast
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Nok
West Africa's earliest known culture; lived in what is now Nigeria; between 500 B.C. and A.D. 200; first people known to smelt iron; fashioned iron into tools for farming and weapons for hunting; also know for realistic and highly stylized terra-cotta objects
Kongo
Kingdom formed on the lower congo River in the 13th century; by the 15th century it was flourishing; based on agriculture; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Secret Societies
West African societies whose membership is secret or whose rituals are known only to society members. Their most significant function is the initiation of boys and girls into adulthood
Swahili
A Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the east african coast
Bantu
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
Animistic Religion
the beleif that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth
The Kingdoms of the Grasslands
Ghana, Songhay, and Mali
Mali Empire
From 1235-1400, this was a strong empire of Western African. With its trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao, it had many mosques and universities. The Empire was ruled by two great rulers, Sundiata and Mansa Musa. They upheld a strong gold-salt trade. The fall of the empire was caused by the lack of strong rulers who could govern well.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. gold and salt trade.
Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Main Trade Products
Gold and salt (almost equal in value)
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Mwene Mutapa
King of Great Zimbabwe, helped them make a rapid expansion. dominated over sources of gold. representatives of it helped export textiles and impressed Europeans with iron weapons.
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