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Intro to Philosophy
Terms in this set (59)
Which dichotomy illustrates the differences between Heraclitus' and Parmenides views of Reality?
Change vs. Existence
Which philosopher sought to prove his point using paradox?
An argument's form which the conclusion necessarily follows from the premise.
What is a type of inductive argument?
What is Thales' basic element of the world?
Which philosopher created the automistic theory?
Which fundamental law proves you can't both exist and not exist?
Law of Contradiction
The Milesians were considered philosophers as opposed to their predecessors because of what characteristics?
- Use of Reason
Fallacy making someone else the bad guy (She used the Obama quote)
Due to epistemological beliefs Pyrrhonian skeptics:
Suspended all judgement
Pythagorean theorem offers us what philosophically?
Some things that are true are not always seen.
According to Socrates, what is virtue?
At his death two charges were brought against Socrates. What were they?
- Impiety to the gods
- Corrupting the youth
The Republic's goal is to define a certain term. Plato defines what term?
Complete the analogy: Knowledge is to Forms as :
Opinion is to Physical objects
For Plato, how does a person have knowledge of forms?
According to Plotinus, how does one come to know the Good or the One?
Aristotle says forms exist where?
Embedded in each thing which resembles the form.
Aristotle divides the soul into 3 parts. which is uniquely human?
What kind of Aristotelian cause is a scultptor in relation to a sculpture?
How does Augustine address the problem of evil?
Evil is the absence of goodness
What is Plato's favorite color?
Describe the Socratic method
- Ask person to define a word
- Ask many questions to clarify their meaning
- Get them to admit they know nothing
For Aristotle which came first, chicken or egg? why?
The chicken because there must be an object in actuality first, before the potential is able to exist.
Which scholastic thinker is famous for the ontological argument, an argument from being?
Aquinas' first way, an argument from motion uses philosophical concepts from who?
If God is good and a dog is good, the term 'good' is being used how, according to Aquinas?
Occam's Razor is a contemporary term for which logical principle?
All things being equal, a simple explanation is better than a complex explanation.
Hobbes teaches a "state of nature" which exists when men are ungoverned. What defines this state?
Anarchy & Chaos
Elisabeth of Bhoemia questioned Descartes on one major issue. What is it?
Relationship of the mind to the body
Despite his influence in the field, Pascal did not have educational training in what subject?
Spinoza disagreed with Descartes on what major issue?
Leibniz believed this is the best possible world because why?
God will always do what is best
Descartes changed philosophy & introduced the modern era in what 3 major ways?
-Ego-centric orientation (personal knowledge)
-Asks questions about knowledge rather than the world
Augustine merged Platonism with Christianity by
- Merging the one with God
- Moving the forms into the mind of God
Descartes strips away everything he can doubt. What is he left with?
"I think, therefore I am"
Utilitarianism is linked with who?
John Stuart Mill
William Paley's major idea was:
Analogy of a Watchmaker
Common Sense Realism is the major idea of who?
George Berkley's major idea was what?
Locke is often called the father of what philosophical movement?
Who popularized the idea of the mind as blank slate?
Based on views of causality, Hume believed science's answers were:
Probable but inconclusive ideas
Hume created a threefold attack on Christianity. List 3 main points.
-Critique on Miracles
-Critique on teleological proof
-Critique of the ontological proof
What are the 3 major tenets of the Enlightenment?
-Qualified use of reason
-Rejection of traditional religious authority (and authenticity of the Bible)
-Optimism about human progress.
Karl Marx is known for what?
Materialist view of history
Martin Buber's major idea is what?
Analytic philosophy is attributed to who?
Jean-Paul Sartre's major idea is what?
Psychoanalysis is attributed to who?
Edmund Husserl had what major idea?
History progresses through the dialectic towards what aim?
Kierkegaard rejected the basic personhood of Descartes. What is a person at the most basic level?
Keirkegaard presented what 3 stages to attain authentic existence?
1 Aesthetic stage
2 Ethical stage
3 Religious stage
Heideggar defined a person's existence differently. How?
A thing in the world (being-there)
Nietzche wanted to overturn all prior ethical systems. What were the problems with them? (short answer)
They helped the under dog and weak. He believed that the strong should dominate the weak, there should be a true winner because we are not all equal.
What is the Categorical Imperative?
-To act only in accordance with the universal code
-Treat everything as an end in itself, not a means to an end
What does a priori mean?
Knowledge independent of experience.
What does a posteriori mean?
Knowledge dependent on experience.
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