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Frogs Bricker 2013

List Kingdom, Class, etc. of a Frog
Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Cordota, Sub Phylum Vertebrata, Class Amphibia
Is a frog an ectotherm or an endotherm?
ectotherm, cold blooded
How many chambers does an adult frog have?
How many chamber does a frog in the larval stage have?
Describe respiration in frogs
across skin, as tadpoles they use gills, as adults they use lungs
Describe metamorphosis in frogs
-tadpoles, smooth thin and moist skin with no claws
-larval stage, function as herbivores
-adult, function as carnivores
Where do frogs lay their eggs, and why?
must always return to the water, because of no shells on the eggs
Describe order Apoda
first order, wormlike legless amphibians
ex: caecillians
Describe order Caudata
amphibians that keep their tails as adults
ex: newt
Describe order Anura
lose tails as adults
ex: frog
Contrast Frogs and Toads
Frogs have smooth skin and live close to water
Toads have rough bumpy skin and live farther out on land
Tell about front legs
four toes, most time no webbing
used for walking and prop up animal to look around
absorbs shock of a jump
Tell about hind legs
five toes, webbing, well developed thigh and calf muscles
two bones in lower leg have been fused together to add strength
What is a nictitating membrane?
a 3rd eyelid on the eye, to keep the eye moist and protect it
Tell about Internal Eye sockets
eye sockets are in the roof of the mouth
when swallowing it will blink pushing the eyes into the socket to help push food down the throat
What is the eustachian tube opening?
in the roof of mouth in back, regulates the pressure in the ear
What is the tympanic membrane?
round, different color than the skin, on the outside of the head
it is the frogs eardrum
Describe maxillary teeth
very tiny teeth lining the roof of the mouth
Describe vomerine teeth
two teeth in the roof of the mouth, both small
both type of teeth are used to hold food in mouth
Purpose of the excretory system
removes nitrogen waste, produced when frog digests protein
How many kidneys does the frog have? tell purpose
2 kidneys, used to remove waste, deep in animals body on either side
Tell process of excretion for the frog
-eurea is collected
-passes through a tube called eureter
-then through urinary bladder, which can store urine for a long time
-the through cloaca
-exits through cloacal opening
Tell about reproduction in a frog (males)
Sperm in testes, exit the vasa efferentia, carried through kidney, then through ureter, through urinary bladder, cloaca, and out cloacal opening
What is a seminal vestule?
next to urinary duct, a storage place for sperm in some frogs
Tell about reproduction in a frog (female)
ovaries produce eggs, 2 ovaries, next to kidney, when eggs are mature they rupture out of ovaries and they fill up body cavity
What is amplexus?
male frog uses inside toe on front feet to press on sides of female to help work eggs out of the body
Explain fertilization of frog eggs
external, when egg is in water a jelly like coating will swell around the egg.
Tell functions of the jelly coating around the egg
keeps predators from eating all of the fertilized eggs
helps insulate the egg
food for the tadpole
Describe the frogs nervous system
very well developed brain, each lobe carries out a certain function
List the 4 lobes of the brain
Optic Lobe
Madulla Oblongota
What is the ofactory lobe?
What is the cerebrum?
memory and learning
What is the Optic lobe?
What is the cerebellum?
balance and coordination
What is the Madulla Oblongota?
all involuntary actions (keeps you alive)
Describe Circulatory System of a frog
closed, blood stays within vessels, 3 chambered heart
Pathway of blood
blood from lungs to into left atrium
blood from body will go into right atrium
enters into conus ateriosus
then into the truncus arteriosus
Tell path of corrodic arch
carries blood to head
Tell path of aaortic arch
will wrap around backside of heart and join under the liver and forms the dorsal aaortic
What is the dorsal aaorta?
carries blood to the trunk of the body, arms, legs, and all digetstive organs
What is the pulmocataneous arch?
carries blood the the lungs, skin, and linings of the mouth
List and describe the veins
1. hypatic portal vein (carries blood through body)
2. venae cavae (same as 1)
3. sinus venosus (same as 1)
4. right atrium (same as 1)
5. renal portal wein (blood through kidneys)
6. pulmonary vein (blood back from lungs to heart)
Describe frog hibernation
occurs in the winter, frog or toad will go to bottom of pond, bury itself under leaves, goes dormant, respirates across skin, lives off stored fat
What is estivation?
similar to hibernation, but it occurs during summer, gets in shady area and goes dormant
What is the gullet?
horizontal opening or slit, leads to esophogaus
Why is the gullet so wide?
because frogs swallow food whole
What are internal nostril openings?
in the roof of the mouth, oxygen comes in and gas exchange occurs in the mouth as long as it is moist
What is the glottis?
vertical slit that leads to the lungs
Describe the digestive process
-swallows through gullet
-food goes through esophagus
-then to stomach, and gastric glands
-then through pylloric valve and small intestines
What is the mesentery?
a small clear tissue called the mesentery
What is the colon?
the large intestine
Describe liver function
produces bile, breaks apart fat and stores it in the gall bladder