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List Kingdom, Class, etc. of a Frog

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Cordota, Sub Phylum Vertebrata, Class Amphibia

Is a frog an ectotherm or an endotherm?

ectotherm, cold blooded

How many chambers does an adult frog have?


How many chamber does a frog in the larval stage have?


Describe respiration in frogs

across skin, as tadpoles they use gills, as adults they use lungs

Describe metamorphosis in frogs

-tadpoles, smooth thin and moist skin with no claws
-larval stage, function as herbivores
-adult, function as carnivores

Where do frogs lay their eggs, and why?

must always return to the water, because of no shells on the eggs

Describe order Apoda

first order, wormlike legless amphibians
ex: caecillians

Describe order Caudata

amphibians that keep their tails as adults
ex: newt

Describe order Anura

lose tails as adults
ex: frog

Contrast Frogs and Toads

Frogs have smooth skin and live close to water
Toads have rough bumpy skin and live farther out on land

Tell about front legs

four toes, most time no webbing
used for walking and prop up animal to look around
absorbs shock of a jump

Tell about hind legs

five toes, webbing, well developed thigh and calf muscles
two bones in lower leg have been fused together to add strength

What is a nictitating membrane?

a 3rd eyelid on the eye, to keep the eye moist and protect it

Tell about Internal Eye sockets

eye sockets are in the roof of the mouth
when swallowing it will blink pushing the eyes into the socket to help push food down the throat

What is the eustachian tube opening?

in the roof of mouth in back, regulates the pressure in the ear

What is the tympanic membrane?

round, different color than the skin, on the outside of the head
it is the frogs eardrum

Describe maxillary teeth

very tiny teeth lining the roof of the mouth

Describe vomerine teeth

two teeth in the roof of the mouth, both small
both type of teeth are used to hold food in mouth

Purpose of the excretory system

removes nitrogen waste, produced when frog digests protein

How many kidneys does the frog have? tell purpose

2 kidneys, used to remove waste, deep in animals body on either side

Tell process of excretion for the frog

-eurea is collected
-passes through a tube called eureter
-then through urinary bladder, which can store urine for a long time
-the through cloaca
-exits through cloacal opening

Tell about reproduction in a frog (males)

Sperm in testes, exit the vasa efferentia, carried through kidney, then through ureter, through urinary bladder, cloaca, and out cloacal opening

What is a seminal vestule?

next to urinary duct, a storage place for sperm in some frogs

Tell about reproduction in a frog (female)

ovaries produce eggs, 2 ovaries, next to kidney, when eggs are mature they rupture out of ovaries and they fill up body cavity

What is amplexus?

male frog uses inside toe on front feet to press on sides of female to help work eggs out of the body

Explain fertilization of frog eggs

external, when egg is in water a jelly like coating will swell around the egg.

Tell functions of the jelly coating around the egg

keeps predators from eating all of the fertilized eggs
helps insulate the egg
food for the tadpole

Describe the frogs nervous system

very well developed brain, each lobe carries out a certain function

List the 4 lobes of the brain

Optic Lobe
Madulla Oblongota

What is the ofactory lobe?


What is the cerebrum?

memory and learning

What is the Optic lobe?


What is the cerebellum?

balance and coordination

What is the Madulla Oblongota?

all involuntary actions (keeps you alive)

Describe Circulatory System of a frog

closed, blood stays within vessels, 3 chambered heart

Pathway of blood

blood from lungs to into left atrium
blood from body will go into right atrium
enters into conus ateriosus
then into the truncus arteriosus

Tell path of corrodic arch

carries blood to head

Tell path of aaortic arch

will wrap around backside of heart and join under the liver and forms the dorsal aaortic

What is the dorsal aaorta?

carries blood to the trunk of the body, arms, legs, and all digetstive organs

What is the pulmocataneous arch?

carries blood the the lungs, skin, and linings of the mouth

List and describe the veins

1. hypatic portal vein (carries blood through body)
2. venae cavae (same as 1)
3. sinus venosus (same as 1)
4. right atrium (same as 1)
5. renal portal wein (blood through kidneys)
6. pulmonary vein (blood back from lungs to heart)

Describe frog hibernation

occurs in the winter, frog or toad will go to bottom of pond, bury itself under leaves, goes dormant, respirates across skin, lives off stored fat

What is estivation?

similar to hibernation, but it occurs during summer, gets in shady area and goes dormant

What is the gullet?

horizontal opening or slit, leads to esophogaus

Why is the gullet so wide?

because frogs swallow food whole

What are internal nostril openings?

in the roof of the mouth, oxygen comes in and gas exchange occurs in the mouth as long as it is moist

What is the glottis?

vertical slit that leads to the lungs

Describe the digestive process

-swallows through gullet
-food goes through esophagus
-then to stomach, and gastric glands
-then through pylloric valve and small intestines

What is the mesentery?

a small clear tissue called the mesentery

What is the colon?

the large intestine

Describe liver function

produces bile, breaks apart fat and stores it in the gall bladder

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