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Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY
The most important southern crop in the 1840s and 1850s was
Cotton
Which of the following statements about slavery as an economic institution in the 1840s and 1850s is true?
The price of slaves rose dramatically from 1820.
Which of the following statements about the "second great migration" of blacks is false?
It affected an enormous number of blacks, but not nearly as many as were originally taken from Africa.
By 1830, the black population in ____________ exceeded the white population.
Mississippi
There was a tendency throughout the antebellum period for the ownership of slaves to become
more concentrated.
On the eve of the Civil War, about ________ of white southern families owned at least one slave.
25%
By the middle of the nineteenth century much of the South's cotton trade was controlled by
New York capitalists.
Which of the following statements is a true depiction of this era?
Most children, black and white, were raised by white servants.
What was family life like for typical southern planters in the early nineteenth century?
Slaveholding families were unlike northern families with similar status.
The United States is the only place in the Western Hemisphere
where the slave population grew by natural increase.
As a social institution, slavery in the United States
is difficult to generalize about because a key factor in the institution was the behavior of individual masters, which varied greatly.
What happened to the institution of slavery as slaves became more valuable and as northern opposition to slavery grew more vocal?
The system of slavery hardened perceptibly.
In the 1830s, Nat Turner gained notoriety as the leader of the
most sensational slave uprising in the early nineteenth century.
What happened to southern interest in abolishing slavery after Nat Turner's revolt in 1831?
Southern states made it increasingly difficult for masters to free their slaves.
The existence of what southern institution explains why the South had few cities and little industry?
slavery
Southern whites reacted to free blacks by
wanting to be rid of them, but trying only half-heartedly to expel them.
The former slave who preached resistance to slavery and planned a major slave uprising in Charleston was
D) Denmark Vesey.
The slave Isabella
became a leading anti-slavery feminist and changed her name to Sojourner Truth.
Slavery warped southern whites by
causing basically decent people to commit countless petty cruelties.
Manufacturing in the antebellum South was
developing on a small scale, but was discouraged by the temper of southern society.
On the eve of the Civil War, the South produced less than ________ of the total manufactured goods in the United States.
15 percent
The most obvious change in the North in the decades before the Civil War was the
rapid expansion of industry.
The use of steam
allowed for greater flexibility in locating factories.
From 1825 to 1850 American industry was
remarkably receptive to technological change.
By the 1850s the United States led the world in manufacturing
goods produced with precision instruments.
What was the effect of immigrant workers on the textile factory system in New England?
It was a boon to factory owners who were in need of more skilled workers to run their machines.
Most of the industrial workers in the mid-nineteenth century
C) lived in the crowded, squalid slums springing up in major cities.
In the new industrial slums of the 1850s, most factory workers were able to survive because
their wives and children also worked in the factories.
In Commonwealth v. Hunt, Massachusetts courts first established the legality of
labor unions.
Between 1820 and the Civil War, which of the following could be said about the trend toward general unionization?
There was no trend toward general unionization.
The growth of American unions in the antebellum era was retarded by
widespread employment of women and children in unskilled jobs.
According to the text, the major paradox of American society before the Civil War was that most Americans continued to
believe in egalitarian democracy, even though society was becoming more stratified and the economic and social distances between the top and bottom of society were growing.
Clipper ships designed by Donald McKay were popular because they
provided fast oceanic transportation.
The first railroad to begin operating in the United States was the ________ Railroad.
Baltimore and Ohio
Before 1860, about three-fourths of all the money invested in railroads came from
private investors.
Public aid for railroad financing before 1860
paid for about three-fourths of all railroad constructions.
Before the Civil War, the railroad that benefited most from federal support for line construction was the ________ Railroad.
Illinois Central
One negative byproduct of railroad construction in the mid-1900s was
crooked practices by those more interested in making money than the development of the rail lines.
According to the map "Railroads, 1860," there was a relative lack of railroads
in the South.
Developed by John Deere, the first tool that helped to ease the labor shortage in the Mississippi Valley was the
steel plowshare.
Cyrus Hall McCormick played the leading role in perfecting the
mechanical reaper.
The businesses which transformed the economy by encouraging regional concentration of industry and by employing large numbers of salaried managers and developing complex internal structures were the
railroads.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the strongest competition for the railroad came from
canals.
An economic cause of increasing sectional conflict on the eve of the Civil War was the decreasing importance of the
southern wheat crop.
The South was particularly backward in railroad construction because it
had a scattered population.
The fundamental cause of the South's lack of railroad construction was the
attitude of its leaders who were not interested in investing in commerce or industry.
Between the mid-1840s and the mid-1850s, the American economy
experienced one of the most remarkable periods of growth in the history of the world.
Chapter 13: As a result of the new fugitive slave law from the Compromise of 1850,
many Northerners who were not abolitionists were outraged at the sight of people being forced to return to slavery.
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel that brought home the evils of slavery to many in the North was
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Harriet Beecher Stowe was
not a professional writer but had been roused by the Fugitive Slave Act.
The "Young America" movement argued that
democracy would triumph everywhere.
In the spirit of the "Young America" movement, William Walker attempted repeatedly to gain control of
Nicaragua.
The United States attempted to establish some control over a future canal across the isthmus of Central America by negotiating with
Spain.
The Ostend Manifesto was an American statement that America should buy or seize
Cuba.
The expansionist mood of "Young America" best explains
Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan.
The most prominent spokesman of the "Young America" movement was
Stephen A. Douglas.
Who was the "the Henry Clay of his generation," the man based his politics on expansion and popular sovereignty?
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas believed that Congress should be concerned primarily about
rapidly exploiting the continent.
During the election of 1852, both major political parties
supported the Compromise of 1850.
Stephen Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 partly because of his
plans for a transcontinental railroad.
Stephen Douglas staunchly believed that the slavery question in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska should be resolved by
popular sovereignty.
The "greatest single step" toward the American Civil War was the
Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Northern feelings seemed to reach a boiling point on the Fugitive Slave Law with the arrest and return of
Anthony Burns.
The ________ party was most closely associated with Americanism, or nativism.
Know-Nothing
The average settler in Kansas
was not strongly interested in the slavery question.
As seen in the map "Bleeding Kansas," Kansas Territory was bordered on the east by proslavery
Missouri.
A major cause of the disorder in Kansas was the
continued resistance of Native Americans to white exploitation and expansion.
In May 1856, ________ slaughtered five unarmed, proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in "bleeding Kansas."
John Brown
The main responsibility for "bleeding Kansas" rests upon
Missouri border ruffians who mercilessly attacked the free state partisans.
Senator ________ was beaten unconscious by a member of the House of Representatives after he gave his "The Crime Against Kansas" speech.
A) Charles Sumner
James Buchanan received the Democratic presidential nomination in 1856 mainly because he
was overseas during the bitter debate over Kansas.
"An Act of Congress which deprives a person...of his liberty or property merely because he came himself or brought his property into a particular Territory...could hardly be dignified with the name of due process of law." This statement is from the
Dred Scott decision.
The Supreme Court ruled the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional in the ________ decision.
Dred Scott
A major implication of the Dred Scott decision was that
slavery was a state institution, legal only where states specifically adopted it.
The Lecompton constitution caused a complete break between President Buchanan and his former political ally,
Stephen Douglas.
Buchanan's reaction to the Lecompton constitution was to
support it despite the fraud perpetrated by the proslavery faction.
Prior to becoming president, Lincoln's position on slavery displayed his
compassion toward the slave owner but condemnation of slavery.
In the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas set out to make Lincoln look like a(n)
abolitionist.
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Lincoln
opposed both slavery and social and political equality for blacks.
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas argued that territories could circumvent the Dred Scott decision by not enacting the laws necessary for slavery. This was called the
Freeport Doctrine.
"It matters not what way the Supreme Court may hereafter decide as to the abstract question...the people have the lawful means to introduce or exclude it as they please, for the reason that slavery cannot exist...unless it is supported by local police regulations." This statement is from
Stephen Douglas's "Freeport Doctrine."
John Brown's major goal in attacking Harpers Ferry was to
seize the federal arsenal and arm the slaves.
Before John Brown was executed by Virginia for treason, conspiracy, and murder,
he behaved with such enormous dignity that many Northerners saw him as a martyr.
"If it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of...millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done." This statement was made by whom?
John Brown
In 1860, the Democratic party
held two conventions and split into a northern and a southern faction.
John Bell and the Constitutional Union party had their greatest support in the 1860 election in the
border states of Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee.
In the election of 1860, the ________ party nominated John Bell for president and ignored the conflicts rending the nation.
Constitutional Union
Which of the following happened in the election of 1860?
Douglas realized he would lose, rose above ambition, and appealed to voters, both North and South, to stand by the Union.
Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 with a
plurality of the Electoral College.
Among the most basic justifications for the secession of the South were the
A) traditional states' rights arguments.
B) refusals of Lincoln and the Republicans to support constitutional guarantees to protect slavery where it already existed.
C) fears of the overpowering Northern economy.
D) promises of aid from England and France.
"We must either submit to degradation, and to the loss of property worth four billions, or we must secede." The source of this quote is
Virginia's "Declaration of Causes of Secession."
When the states of the lower South seceded,
A) Buchanan declared secession illegal and boldly rallied the Unionists in the South to prevent it.
B) Lincoln thought secession a bluff and announced no plans to deal with it before assuming office.
C) Congress passed, and Buchanan signed, the Crittenden Compromise, guaranteeing the future security of slavery.
D) Lincoln indicated his willingness to compromise on extending slavery in the territories.
After secession began in 1860, the proposed constitutional amendment which would have guaranteed the future existence of slavery south of the old Missouri Compromise line was the
Crittenden Compromise.
Between the election of 1860 and his inauguration, Abraham Lincoln
A) contacted Jefferson Davis several times.
B) worked very closely with President Buchanan.
C) made serious attempts to reassure the South.
D) did not show much leadership.
At the start of the Civil War, Lincoln's Secretary of State William Seward
A) thought he could dominate Lincoln.
B) was the most incompetent member of Lincoln's Cabinet.
C) believed Lincoln was far too radical on slavery.
D) argued that the North was better off without the slaveholding South.
Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee seceded when Lincoln
A) ordered the Union army to invade the South.
B) approved the execution of Confederates as criminals.
C) called for 75,000 volunteers after the fall of Fort Sumter.
D) appointed Charles Sumner to his Cabinet.
President Lincoln viewed secession as
A) a temporary threat which could be ignored.
B) no reason for a civil war.
C) part of the right of self-determination.
D) a rejection of democracy.
The Civil War was fought to
A) destroy slavery.
B) please the abolitionists.
C) preserve the Union.
D) profit northern manufacturers.
Military action early in the Civil War seemed to indicate that
A) northern generals were superior.
B) southern generals were superior.
C) northern enlisted men were superior.
D) southern enlisted men were superior.
In establishing a new government, the South
A) totally rejected all existing federal laws.
B) was handicapped by its states' rights philosophy.
C) ignored federal precedents and administrative machinery.
D) benefited from its states' rights philosophy.
According to the graph "Men Present for Service During the Civil War," which of the following statements is true?
A) From 1862 to 1864 the South had twice as many soldiers as the North.
B) In 1865 the North had twice as many soldiers as the South.
C) Between 1862 and 1864 the North and South had approximately the same number of soldiers.
D) At all times during the war the North had at least twice as many soldiers as the South.
The first and only president of the Confederacy was
A) Robert E. Lee.
B) Alexander Hamilton Stephens.
C) Jefferson Davis.
D) Howell Cobb.
Comparing them as presidents, the basic difference between Lincoln and Davis was that
A) Lincoln could not stand criticism.
B) Davis allowed personal feelings to distort his judgment.
C) Lincoln failed to delegate authority.
D) Davis was patient with people who talked too much or did not understand him.
The first major battle of the Civil War on July 21, 1861 was a disaster for the Union. It was the Battle of
A) Antietam.
B) Shiloh.
C) Bull Run.
D) Sharpsburg.
After the Union was defeated at Bull Run, Lincoln chose ________ to command the Union forces.
A) Winfield Scott
B) Ulysses S. Grant
C) George B. McClellan
D) Winfield Scott Hancock
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, and Benjamin Wade were leaders of the
A) Radical Republicans.
B) Copperheads.
C) Lincoln Republicans.
D) Peace Democrats.
Clement L. Vallandigham believed there were two rebellions in progress, "the Secessionist Rebellion," and "the Abolitionist Rebellion." Vallandigham was a
A) War Democrat.
B) Peace Democrat.
C) Copperhead.
D) Radical Republican.
Members of the peace societies in the North were often called
A) Tories.
B) Copperheads.
C) Water Moccasins.
D) Rattlesnakes.
The most notorious Peace Democrat was Ohio Congressman
A) Benjamin Wade.
B) Lambdin Milligan.
C) John Slidell.
D) Clement L. Vallandigham.
After the Battle of Bull Run, President Jefferson Davis revised his military strategy to rely primarily upon
A) building a strong defense to wear down the Union's will to fight.
B) planning a series of bold invasions of the North.
C) breaking the Union's naval blockade with the assistance of Great Britain.
D) using slaves as support troops.
The most vexing problem the Confederacy had during the Civil War was
A) food production.
B) ammunition.
C) manpower.
D) finance.
An examination of the Confederate war effort reveals that
A) there was a serious lack of arms and ammunition.
B) northern military might was overwhelming.
C) southern armies did not lose any battles because of a lack of armaments.
D) southern armies were well supplied with shoes and uniforms.
The idea that "cotton is king" played a major role in the way
A) the South conducted foreign affairs.
B) Lincoln viewed slavery.
C) Davis was chosen president of the Confederacy.
D) Lincoln viewed foreign policy.
What role did Great Britain play in the Civil War?
A) Strong public support in England for the North made no difference in British policies.
B) Davis threatened to declare war if England delivered two ironclad rams built for the Union.
C) England needed northern wheat more than southern cotton.
D) Great Britain strongly supported the Union in every way possible throughout the war.
On what did the South mainly rely to finance the war?
A) money from cotton exports
B) money in reserves
C) tariffs
D) the printing of paper currency
The map "Battles in the West," depicts how control of the ________ was the focus of most of the battles in the West.
A) port of New Orleans
B) Mississippi River
C) Ohio River
D) Missouri River
The early confidence of both sides was rocked by the staggering casualties sustained in 1862 at
A) Bull Run.
B) Seven Pines.
C) Shiloh.
D) Vicksburg.
The basic intellectual and psychological weaknesses of General George McClellan were clearly displayed during
A) the Wilderness campaign.
B) the Vicksburg campaign.
C) Gettysburg.
D) the Peninsular campaign.
Even though he did not defeat Lee, McClellan managed at least to stop his 1862 invasion of the North at
A) Manassas.
B) Antietam.
C) Gettysburg.
D) Shiloh.
The Emancipation Proclamation directly freed
A) only slaves in the border states controlled by the Union.
B) no slaves.
C) only slaves in areas of the South controlled by the Union army.
D) all slaves in the South.
Lincoln justified the Emancipation Proclamation as
A) the first step in realizing the goals of the Declaration of Independence.
B) a noble goal that would stimulate northern morale.
C) carrying out God's will.
D) a military necessity because it would weaken the enemy.
As a result of the Emancipation Proclamation,
A) Democrats made significant political gains in the Northwest by capitalizing on voters' racist fears.
B) Republican politicians vigorously defended the cause of racial justice and black equality.
C) the Republican party refused to renominate Lincoln in 1864.
D) Democrats vigorously defended the cause of racial justice and black equality.
Most Republican politicians defended emancipation on the grounds that
A) blacks deserved it.
B) northern blacks would all move to the South.
C) the war's purpose was to end slavery.
D) blacks could then be better assimilated.
The New York City draft riots in July 1863 were triggered by the Conscription Act of 1863 and
A) racial backlash against the Emancipation Proclamation.
B) anger over war profiteering by unscrupulous businesses.
C) frustration with rampant inflation and stagnant wages.
D) anger at New York Democrats who did not support Lincoln's policies.
How did blacks react to the Emancipation Proclamation?
A) They were suspicious about Lincoln's motives.
B) They saw it as a beacon promising future improvement.
C) There was no universal black reaction.
D) They were largely indifferent to it because it had no immediate impact.
During the Civil War, black soldiers were
A) fully integrated into the Union army.
B) less than one percent of the Union forces by the war's end.
C) fully integrated into the Confederate army.
D) more than ten percent of the Union forces by the war's end.
In summer 1863, Lee launched his last assault into the North and was defeated in the Battle of ________, which probably decided the fate of the Union.
A) Shiloh
B) Gettysburg
C) Fredericksburg
D) Antietam
The Mississippi River was controlled by the Union after the fall of
A) New Orleans.
B) Mobile.
C) Vicksburg.
D) Louisville.
Grant's victory at ________ led to Lincoln's giving him command of all troops west of the Appalachians.
A) Gettysburg
B) Shiloh
C) Antietam
D) Vicksburg
After the South seceded, Congress passed several measures previously blocked by southern opposition, including the ________ Act.
A) Homestead
B) Preemption
C) Emancipation
D) Habeus Corpus
The Civil War caused the northern economy to experience
A) soaring prices after 1862.
B) high levels of unemployment.
C) dramatic increases in immigration.
D) relatively few strikes.
How did the Civil War affect the American economy?
A) By speeding economic change, it helped prepare the way for modern industrial society.
B) The enormous number of casualties created severe labor shortages and stifled economic growth.
C) The fearful national crisis discouraged selfishness and materialism.
D) The wasteful destruction of material resources by the war retarded economic growth.
How did the Civil War affect women and their "proper spheres"?
A) Only northern women expanded their "proper spheres" by working as army nurses and replacing male workers.
B) Both northern and southern women expanded their "proper spheres" by serving in their respective armies in non-combat roles.
C) Both northern and southern women expanded their "proper spheres" by working as army nurses and replacing male workers.
D) Only southern women expanded their "proper spheres" by working as army nurses and replacing male workers.
The former Democrat placed on the Lincoln ticket to assure victory in 1864 was
A) Joseph E. Johnston.
B) George B. McClellan.
C) Stephen A. Douglas.
D) Andrew Johnson.
The Union general noted for believing in and carrying out the doctrine of total war was
A) Robert E. Lee.
B) George B. McClellan.
C) Lew Wallace.
D) William T. Sherman.
Sherman's march through Georgia and the fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, contributed greatly to
A) Grant's victory in the Wilderness.
B) the resignation of Jefferson Davis.
C) the Emancipation Proclamation.
D) Lincoln's election in November.
In his second inaugural address, Lincoln
A) urged tolerance and mercy toward the South.
B) made no efforts to calm southern fears about his administration.
C) reiterated the themes and goals of his first inaugural address.
D) claimed he would not interfere with slavery in the states where it already existed.
On April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant at
A) Lynchburg.
B) Gettysburg.
C) Richmond.
D) Appomattox Court House.
At war's end, the human toll of the Civil War was
A) 600,000, nearly as many as in all other U.S. wars combined.
B) 1 million, more than in all other U.S. wars.
C) 50,000, about 28 percent of the population.
D) 300,000, most of which succumbed to new armament technology.
As a result of the Union victory, people tended to view America as
A) evidence that democracy would fail.
B) a nation, not just a union of states.
C) vulnerable to further secession movements.
D) a beacon of freedom for people of color everywhere.
Chapter 15 Reconstruction and the South
...
President Lincoln's proposed plan for reconstructing the Union
A) permitted states to apply for readmission after 10 percent of the qualified voters took an oath of allegiance.
B) divided the South into zones of military occupation.
C) confiscated land from wealthy white Southerners to provide forty acres and a mule for each former slave.
D) permitted states to apply for readmission after a majority of the qualified voters took an oath of allegiance.
President Lincoln believed that Reconstruction should
A) be controlled exclusively by Congress.
B) harshly punish the white South for its treason.
C) abolish slavery and divide the plantation lands among the former slaves.
D) avoid vindictiveness toward the South.
In 1864, Congress rejected Lincoln's Reconstruction plan when they passed the
A) Kansas Bill.
B) Wade-Davis Bill.
C) Freedmen's Bureau Bill.
D) First Reconstruction Act.
The Unionist Democrat placed on the Lincoln ticket to assure victory in 1864 was
A) Ulysses S. Grant.
B) George B. McClellan.
C) Horatio Seymour.
D) Andrew Johnson.
Andrew Johnson has been described as
A) extremely friendly toward black rights.
B) an eager defender of traditional southern aristocrats.
C) hating all things southern.
D) specializing in opposition and alienating members of his own party.
The Thirteenth Amendment
A) authorized presidential reconstruction.
B) gave blacks the right vote.
C) abolished slavery.
D) authorized the income tax.
The "ultra" Radical Republicans
A) wanted to protect freedmen from exploitation, but not give them the vote.
B) ignored black rights.
C) demanded immediate civil and political equality for blacks.
D) accepted the southern states restored under the Johnson Reconstruction plan.
President Johnson alienated moderate Republicans when he
A) vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights bills.
B) refused to support the Fourteenth Amendment.
C) agreed to compromise with Charles Sumner.
D) pardoned Jefferson Davis.
In April, 1866, for the first time in American history, a major piece of legislation became law over a presidential veto. It was the
A) Civil Rights Act.
B) Wade-Davis Act.
C) Thirteenth Amendment.
D) Freedman's Bureau Act.
In President Johnson's clash with Congress over Reconstruction policy, Johnson's worst enemy was
A) Thaddeus Stevens.
B) Charles Sumner.
C) Benjamin Wade.
D) the president himself.
During the bitter days of Reconstruction, most Northerners
A) believed in giving black men the vote.
B) opposed true equality for blacks.
C) completely supported the Radicals.
D) supported black political equality, but not social equality.
The ________ Amendment to the Constitution broadly defined American citizenship and "reduced the power of all the states."
A) Thirteenth
B) Fourteenth
C) Fifteenth
D) Sixteenth
The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution became embroiled in a debate between black rights and the rights of
A) Native Americans.
B) non-English speaking immigrants.
C) white northern women.
D) Irish immigrants.
Under the First Reconstruction Act of March, 1867, the former states of the Confederacy (excluding Tennessee) were
A) allowed to elect members to the Senate, but not to the House.
B) required to confiscate large plantations in the former Confederacy and divide the land among the former slaves.
C) readmitted to the Union after each ratified the Thirteenth Amendment.
D) divided into five military districts.
Following the passage of the Second Reconstruction Act, white Southerners
A) quickly cooperated with the Radical Republicans.
B) continued to resist federal policy.
C) were able to overturn most black governments.
D) threatened to form secessionist governments in exile.
Reconstruction was a period of
A) judicial supremacy.
B) political inaction and indifference.
C) congressional supremacy.
D) executive expansion.
The conflict between the president and Congress came to a head when Johnson
A) removed General Ulysses S. Grant from his command.
B) dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.
C) appointed Salmon P. Chase as secretary of state.
D) vetoed the Civil Rights bill.
President Andrew Johnson was
A) impeached by the House and convicted by a two-thirds majority of the Senate.
B) neither impeached by the House nor convicted by the Senate.
C) impeached by the Senate, but not convicted by a two-thirds majority of the House.
D) impeached by the House, but not convicted by a two-thirds majority of the Senate.
Which of the following was at issue in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson?
A) the Civil Rights Act
B) the Fourteenth Amendment
C) the Reconstruction Acts
D) the Tenure of Office Act
The election of 1868 seemed to indicate that
A) the white electorate was wholeheartedly behind Grant.
B) Horatio Seymour was a very weak candidate.
C) most white Americans opposed Radical Reconstruction.
D) most white Americans supported Radical Reconstruction.
The ________ Amendment prohibited states from denying black men the right to vote.
A) Twelfth
B) Thirteenth
C) Fourteenth
D) Fifteenth
Studies of "black Republican" governments during Radical Reconstruction reveal that
A) white scalawags and carpetbaggers were really in charge.
B) former slaves dominated southern state governments.
C) free blacks from the North dominated southern state governments.
D) white scalawags and carpetbaggers were merely window dressing for the black politicians who controlled southern governments.
During Reconstruction, their opponents called southern white Republicans
A) scalawags.
B) redeemers.
C) Uncle Toms.
D) carpetbaggers.
The Freedmen's Bureau and the "black Republican" governments both
A) devoted much energy and money to public education for former slaves.
B) found Andrew Johnson to be among their strongest supporters.
C) overlooked the importance of political rights and power for former slaves.
D) focused only on projects that aided former slaves.
Thaddeus Stevens was the most prominent congressional advocate of a plan to give every adult male ex-slave
A) a free education to the sixth grade.
B) 100 dollars.
C) 40 acres and a mule.
D) free transportation to the West.
Which of the following most accurately describes southern agriculture after the Civil War?
A) Every adult male ex-slave was given forty acres and a mule.
B) Both output and productivity declined dramatically.
C) "Sharecropping" was outlawed.
D) Tobacco replaced cotton as the most valuable crop.
Freedmen responded to the abolition of slavery by
A) more than doubling the cotton output because they worked for themselves.
B) homesteading on vast sections of land confiscated from Confederate leaders.
C) choosing not to work like slaves so as to have more leisure time.
D) forming large collective farms so they did not need to work for whites.
As a result of black demands for economic independence and the shortage of capital, the South developed the agricultural system known as
A) sharecropping.
B) gang labor.
C) tenant farming.
D) wage-crop economics.
The main cause of southern rural poverty for both whites and blacks was the
A) harsh treatment by Radical Republicans.
B) lack of enough capital to finance the sharecropping system.
C) failure of new varieties of cotton to thrive.
D) ill-advised attempt at rapid industrialization.
Under the crop-lien system, both the sharecroppers and the landowners
A) profited from the South's rapid economic progress immediately after the Civil War.
B) depended on credit, often at high interest rates, from local merchants and bankers.
C) had strong incentives to diversify their crops.
D) suffered from shortages of labor and credit due to the South's rapid industrialization after the Civil War.
During Reconstruction, the South's share of the national output of manufactured goods
A) increased dramatically.
B) declined sharply.
C) remained steady.
D) came to equal that of the North due to cotton and tobacco production.
Southern white Republicans often controlled the black vote by the influence of the
A) Freedmen's Bureau.
B) Free Soil party.
C) Ku Klux Klan.
D) Union League of America.
The waning support of Northerners for Radical policy was due in part to
A) the retirement of President Johnson.
B) the activities of the Ku Klux Klan.
C) the increasing fissure between northern and southern whites.
D) their loyalty to the Democratic party.
The three Force Acts (1870-1871) were an attempt by Congress to control groups like the
A) carpetbaggers.
B) Union League of America.
C) scalawags.
D) Ku Klux Klan.
The average Northerner lost interest in Reconstruction once it became reasonably certain that the former slaves
A) had economic security.
B) were guaranteed the vote.
C) would not be re-enslaved.
D) were guaranteed social equality.
Grant's most serious weakness as president was his failure to
A) deal effectively with economic and social problems.
B) carry out the will of Congress in Reconstruction.
C) control government corruption.
D) recognize the importance of the black vote.
In 1872 Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans focused on the issue of
A) guaranteeing civil rights and economic aid to former slaves.
B) defending laws to help unions and farm organizations.
C) granting women the vote.
D) supporting civil service reform and low tariffs.
The apparent winner of the election of 1876, with 203 electoral votes and a quarter of a million more popular votes than his opponent, was
A) James G. Blaine.
B) Samuel J. Tilden.
C) Rutherford B. Hayes.
D) Horace Greeley.
In the final count, Tilden received no electoral votes from states in the
A) North.
B) Far West.
C) South.
D) East.
The disputed electoral votes in the election of 1876 were decided by the
A) House of Representatives.
B) electoral commission created by Congress.
C) Senate.
D) Supreme Court.
The president, as a result of the Compromise of 1877, was
A) Rutherford B. Hayes.
B) Ulysses S. Grant.
C) James A. Garfield.
D) Grover Cleveland.
As a result of the Compromise of 1877,
A) the principles of the Radical Republicans became part of the fabric of American politics.
B) the power of the president was permanently undermined.
C) the Supreme Court stepped in to protect blacks.
D) Reconstruction ended and a new political order took shape in the South.
After the Compromise of 1877, the former slaves
A) gained economic and political power in the South.
B) were condemned to poverty and indignity in the interests of sectional harmony.
C) made no more dramatic political or economic gains until after World War II, but also suffered no economic or political losses.
D) continued to share in America's growing wealth and power.