63 terms

Editing, chapter 8 of Looking At Movies

STUDY
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Editing
The process (art and technique) by which individual shots are assembled into a cinematic whole
Cutting and Splicing
Before digital editing, a manual process editors used to cut, glue, and tape film together
Technique
The joining together of two shots; cutting and splicing
Craft
Ability to join shots and produce a meaning that does not exist in either one of the individual shots
Shot
Basic building block of film editing. One uninterrupted run of the camera
Take
An indication of the number of times a particular shot is filmed
Cut
Editing's most fundamental tool. A direct change from one shot to another. The precise moment when shot A ends and shot B begins
Kuleshov Effect
Lev Kuleshov conducted experiments to determine the effects of film on the audience. The concept developed highlights the tendency of viewers to interpret shots in relation to surrounding shots.
Montage Editing
The juxtaposition of individual shots to create new meaning. The process fragments and reassembles footage to manipulate the viewers perception and understanding.
Editor
The collaborator who decides what shots to use and how to assemble them into a cinematic whole
Editor's Responsibilities
The editor is responsible for managing the following aspects of the final film:
* Spatial relationships between shots
* Temporal relationships between shots
* Overall rhythm of the film

aka space, time, and pace
Spatial Relationships
Any single shot limits our sense of space to the framing of that shot. As other shots are placed in close proximity to that original shot, our sense of the overall space in which the characters are moving shifts and expands
Temporal Relationships
* Flashback
* Flash-forward
* Ellipsis
* Montage
Flashback
The interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that show what happened earlier in the story; used in almost all movie genres
Flash-forward
The interruption of present action by a shot or series of shots that show images form the plot's future
Ellipsis
An omission between one thing and another
Montage
The process or technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film to form a continuous whole.
Rhythm
Editing determines the duration of a shot. The editor controls a film's rhythm by varying the duration of the shots.
Editing Approaches
* Continuity
* Discontinuity
Continuity
Seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow (invisibility)
Discontinuity
Breaks the rules of continuity editing by seeking transitions that are not smooth, contiguous, or coherent. There may be mismatches in location, direction, or speed of movement, lighting, mise-en-scène, camera angles, and even color.
Master Scene Technique
Based on the principle of coverage, meaning that a scene is photographed with a variety of individual shots running from a long shot to a close-up
Master Shot
A single scene with a long shot that covers characters and action in one continuous shot
The 180* Rule (Axis of Action)
An imaginary horizontal line between the main objects or characters being photographed to determine where the camera should be placed to preserve screen direction continuity
Techniques to Maintain Continuity
* Shot/reverse shot
* Match cuts
* Eye-line match
* Point-of-view editing
Shot/reverse shot
A-B-A
The camera switches between shots of different characters
Match cuts
'A' matches 'B' in action, subject, graphic content, or eye contact
Eye-line match
'A' looks and 'B' looks back
Point-of-view editing
Makes us aware we are seeing the perspective of a particular group
Parallel Editing
Cutting together 2+ lines of action happening at the same time in different places also known as crosscutting
Intercutting
Editing of 2+ actions that take place at different locations and/or different times, but give the impression of one scene
Jump Cut
A sudden, perhaps illogical, and often disorienting ellipsis between shots
Fade (in or out)
Allows a scene to open or close slowly, suggesting a break in time, place, or action
Dissolve
Shot B gradually appears over shot A and begins to replace it midway through the process
Split Screen
Two images tell multiple stories within the same frame at the same cinematic time
Transitions
* Jump cut
* Fade (in or out)
* Dissolve
* Split screen
Sound
* What is heard in a movie
* The audio component to filmmaking
* Operates on both a physical and psychological level
Vocal Sound
* Dialogue
* Narration
Dialogue
Dialogue is the speech of the characters
* Dialogue is a function of plot
* Product of acting
Narration
Narration is commentary spoken by either an onscreen or off-screen voice
* Omniscient - not from a character in the movie (3rd person)
* 1st person - from a character within the movie
Environmental Sounds
* Ambient sound
* Sound effects [Foley sounds]
Ambient sound
Emanates from the ambiance of the setting or environment being fimed
Sound effects
Include all sounds artificially created for the soundtrack that have a function in telling the story
* Foley sounds
Foley sounds
Unique sounds created from a variety of props and equipment to simulate everyday sounds
Silence
*Absence of sounds we expect in a movie
*Functions as a sound when the filmmaker deliberately suppressed the vocal, environmental, or musical sounds
*Interplay between silence and sound produces a rhythm for the film
Sound Production Phases
* Design
* Recording
* Editing
* Mixing
Sound Design
Creating the sound for a film based on the following assumptions:
* Sound should be integral to all 3 phases of film production (pre-production, production, post-production)
* Sound is potentially as expressive as its images
* Image and sound can create different worlds
* Image and sound are co-experssible
Sound Recording
The process of capturing sound for movies with a microphone
Sound Editor
Responsible for the overall process of editing and for the sound crew; also works with the musical composer(s)
Dubbing
The process of recording and replacing voices on a soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting. This re-recording process is done in post-production and post-release.
ADR (Automatic Dialogue Replacement)
A computer process for synching dialogue rerecorded in post-production to the moving lips of actors on screen
Sound Mixing
Combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture
Sound track
A single element (vocals, effects, music) on an individual track that can be combined in a multi-track sound design
Describing Film Sound
Perceptual characteristics of sound:
* Pitch
* Loudness
* Quality
* Fidelity

Source - where it comes from

Type - vocal or musical
Sources of Film Sound
* Source - the location from which a sound originates
* Diegetic vs nondiegetic
* Onscreen vs off-screen
* Internal vs external
Diegetic Sound
Originates from a source within a film's world
Nondiegetic Sound
Comes from a source outside a film's world
Internal vs External
Internal sound occurs whenever we hear what we assume are the thoughts of a character within a scene

External sound comes from within the diegesis (the world of the story) and we assume that it is heard by the characters in that world
Functions of Film Sound
* Tell the narrative
* Audience awareness - spatial and temporal dimension
* Expression of point of view
* Raise expectations
* Create a rhythm
* Develop character
* Continuity
* Emphasis
* Theme
Characterization
* Dialogue, sound effects, and music all develop character
* Musical themes can associate with character's thoughts and setting
* Musical themes can be used to identify characters
Musical
A movie that tells the story (in some part) through song & dance
Film music
* Score or source
* Sets mood or manipulates emotions
* The juxtaposition of music and image can create new meaning
* Musical themes are frequently associated with individual characters
Leitmotif
A recurrent musical idea (a melody, chord sequence, rhythm) associated with a particular character, idea, or space
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