Idea came from suez canal. Columbia wanted control of canal, US encouraged panama to declare independence (how US gets involove), in return for gaining it's independence, panal gains control of panama canal and gave the control of canal zone to USA in 1903 completed in 1914
Advised latin america to stablize their economy and politics, if they didn't it required the US to serve as a "international police power," basically allows the US to intervene in Latin America whenever they wanted
Open Door Policy
US focuses Asian policy on keeping control of the Philippines and keeping Open Door Policy in place with China. Free trade, China is forced to the open door policy.
President Wilson's beliefs. Wants to see progressive ideas throughout the world and thinks the US should be the leader.
Two main ideas of Wilsonianism
Open door policy and democracy
How does President Wilson see change in the world?
In order for the world to change and for the US to be the leader, there has to be a war
Debate FOR entering WWI
Basically get germans back for sinking of American ships, the Lusitania
Debate AGAINST entering WWI
US wished to remain neutral because the war drained the nation's youth, resources, reform impulses, violated Christian morality, business barons also made huge profit
Feb. 1917, Telegram from Germany to Mexico. Germany wanted Mexico to attack the US, and in return Germany would help Mexico regain the land lost in the Mexican-American war.
What is Wilson's response to the Zimmerman Telegram
He sees it as propaganda, puts the telegram in newspapers nationwide
Reasons for entering WWI
Apr. 2, 1917. Political Reasons: Germany violated freedom of the seas, disrupted commerce, interfered with US & Mexico relationship, most of all Germany killed Americans.
US declared war on who first?
Germany, Austria/Hungary came later
US Goals of WWI
Reform world politics, Wilson felt that the US must be involved in war in order to participate in the peace process (Open Door Policy, Democracy, outlaw revolution and aggression)
Selective Service Act
May 1917. All males 21-30 (later changed to 18-45) had to register for the draft. Soldiers were mainly white, male, single, and poorly educated. Women served as nurses, operators, clerks in recruitment offices
Pro Argument for Selective Service Act
Ready for the war, patriotism (everyone is involved)
Anti Selective Service Act
loosing the labor class and becoming militarization
Can be deffered from the war if ..
working in a war job and if you were independently taking care of people
Oct. 1917, The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
Paris Peace Conference
The peace conference that decided the terms of WWI peace and Treaty of Versailles. The big four were there except for Germany and Russia. Everyone wanted to blame Germany for the war
Treaty of Versailles
1918-1919. Determined Germany is blamed for the war and must pay $33 billion back to the allied forces. German colonies went to other countries. In the end, US government vetoed Treaty of Versailles because of Article X
1920. Women get the right to vote
Big Four (Allies)
Italy, France, England, and USA
League of Nations
Wilson's main goal. Permanent council of 5 members, elected delegates from smaller countries, main assembly, world court. Still happens without the US and Germany.
Part of the league of nations charter. Protect members against outside aggression. Basically if one member is attacked everyone will have to defend them.
(1918) President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars. Wilson's plans for peace
Critics of the Versailles Treaty
Gave colonies to other countries, no mention of freedom of the seas, no reduction of tariffs, no mention of racial equality
Big question about the Critics of the Versailles Treaty
Article X, would US have to get involved in foreign disputes?
U.S. becomes world power and moves back into a position of neutrality. #1 in world trade, becomes world's leading banker. if the US economy's goes bad, then everyone elses economy fails.
Reasons for imperialism
Exceptionalism, capitalism, social darwinism, christianity, paternalistic attitude towards foreigners
Treaty of Paris
1898. Cuba is independent, US gets Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Allowed easy access to china and spain gets $20 million