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Biology 224 Chapter 6 Liberty University (Dr. Davy)
Terms in this set (49)
the total Chemical activity of a living organism
the type possessed by moving objects
the type possessed because of location or arrangement
form of potential energy stored in molecules because of the arrangement of atoms
a series of chemical reactions
larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones with the release of Potential Chemical Energy (exergonic).
smaller molecules are built into larger ones with the input of Potential Chemical Energy (endergonic).
energy is neither created or destroyed. But it can be converted from one form to another.
in any energy conversion, some energy is lost from doing work, so Entropy(measure of disorder) increases.
Total chemical energy of a molecule
Free Energy (G)
the usable energy available for cellular work
the unusable energy in a molecule
H= G + TS (T= absolute temp. K)
release energy (spontaneously)
requires the input of energy (not spontaneous)
point in a reversible chemical reaction which is no net change in the concentration of Reactants or Products.
Chemical Equilibrium constant:
Chemical Equilibrium Constant Equation:
K-e = (Products)/(Reactants)
Gibbs Free Energy
Explain Gibbs Free Energy
difference in enthalpy between a reaction's Products and Reactants.
Enthalpy (Products) - Enthalpy (Reactants)
Determines whether reactions will occur spontaneously.
Determines direction of rxn.
Gibbs Free Energy
When products have a lesser Enthalpy than the Reactants, energy was given off
For Chemical Equillibrium constant, the reaction is exergonic because it produces lots of product.
larger number - smaller number
(+Triangle G) =
When the product have more enthalpy than reactants
When little product is generated
Chemical Equilibrium Constant Endergonic
ATP + H20 =
ADP + PO4-
What is the Enthalpy of Transferring Energy in Cells?
substance that speeds up chemical reaction without itself being used up
protein catalysts that speeds up biochemical reactions
Enzymes ____________molecules to facilitate the reaction.
small amount of energy which must be supplied before chemical reactions will occur.
site where substrate is bound and the reaction is catalyzed
-occurs when a molecule is shaped very much like the substrate.
-competitive inhibitor binds to and blocks the active site
occurs when an inhibitor binds to separate site, changing shape of the enzyme to an inactive conformation (shape)
more than one shape depending upon whether a ligand is bound
small molecules permanently attached to enzymes that aid in catalysis.
-inorganic ions (Fe3+or Zn2+) that bind to enzymes temporarily and promote chemical reactions
- ususally act as temporary electron acceptors/donators.
organic molecules that bind enzymes temporarily and participate in/ enhance the reaction.
Coenzymes are derived from what?
vitamins necessary in our diet
What coenzyme is used to pick up electrons from one enzyme and store them temporarily before giving them to another enzyme?
The Control of Metabolism
a series of chemical reactions where the product of one reaction is the reactant for the next.
slowest reaction, limits the overall rate of the metabolic pathway, usually located at front of the pathway
occurs when product from end of a metabolic pathway acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor, inactivating an Enzyme early in the pathway.
Enzymatic (Protein) Denaturation
occurs when the shape of an Enzyme is permanently altered, destroying its catalytic ability.
What are denaturing agents?
-Highly charged ions