PSY 340 Midterm 2

the two types of vision cells that form the optic nerve
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 117
Terms in this set (117)
Prosopagnosiaform of associative visual agnosia-inability to recognize familiar facessimultagnosiadamage to posterior parietal lobe that causes the loss of ability to fixate on one object at a timecontralateral neglectdamage to right parietal lobe may cause someone to ignore food on the left side of the his plateauditory nervehair cells in ear join to formwhere does the auditory association cortex residetemporal lobeaphasialoss of language capabilitiesPaul Brocaneurologist who had patient who could only say the word "tan"Broca's areaposterior, inferior part of the frontal lobeDamage to Broca's area causessome degree of expressive aphasia, or difficulty producing normal speech patterns; often have trouble producing function words( the, in, some, about)Carl Wernickeresearch neurologist: who had patients whose speech was unintelligibleWernicke areaanterior, superior, temporal lobeWernicke's aphasiapatients have good word pronunciation, and speech is fluent, however it makes no sense; they cannot make sense of other peoples speech eitherReceptive aphasiainability to comprehend languageAngular GyrusWhere the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes metAlexiainability to readAgraphiainability to writeAcurate Fasciculusbridge of axons which the verbal code travels overConduction aphasiadmage to Acurate fasciculus that causes pateinets to not be able to repeat what is said to themmotor cortexwhat allows you to say words out loudsomatosensory cortexprimary area of the parietal lobeType 1 receptorstell you when something first touches your skin (considered rapidly adapting receptors)Type 2 receptorsmuch less sensitive receptors (called continously responding receptors)Tactile Agnosiainability to recognize familiar objects by touch (indicates damage to somatosensory cortex)"stoics"have two copies of genes that use valine to build COMT (have higher pain thresholds)"wimps"have two copies of genes that use methionine to build COMT (have lower pain thresholds"stoics" have less dopamine available meaning:they have high amounts of endorphine release"whimps" have more dopamine available, meaning:they have reduced endorphine releaseWhat does COMT do?metabolize dopamineHigh levels of dopamine=reduced endorphin contentWhat part of the brain deals with emotional interpretation of pain messagesprefrontal cortexNociceptorsends of pain sensitive nerves found at the base of brain; can be stimulated by: stres, muscular tension, dilated blood vessels, and other ehadache triggersSubstance Pneurotransmitter that is released and travels to somatosensory cortext which lets person know the location of the painClassic migrainepresence of an aura of premigraine symptoms: flashing lights, temp loss of vision, speech difficulty, confusion, and tingling of face or handsperiaqueductal grey (PAG)bunch ofneurons which are loaded with receptors for endorphinapraxiadisorder of voluntary movementposterior parietal lobekeeps track of body position relative to the seen worldideomotor apraxiadamage to left parietal lobedamage to left parietal lobecan cause difficulty in performing movements on commandConstructional apraxiadamage to right parietal lobedamage to right parietal lobedifficulty with visual-motor tasks such as tying shoes, buttoning shirts, or constructing simple geometric shapesIdeational apraxiadmaging to frontal association cortext causes difficulty plannig/performing tasks in an intended sequenceDamage to primary motor cortexreduces speed, accuracy, and force of movementsCerebelluminsures smooth coordination of motor movements; damage to this area causes person to look intoxicatedParkinson's results fromdeath of cells containing dopamine which live in the brain stem (in the substantia nigra)Basal gangliavoluntary movement; Parkinson's: pathway for axons of dopamine cells terminate here and if it does not receive enough dopamine messages from the substantia negra, a person will develop Parkinson'sAkathesiarestlessnessSymptoms of Parkinson'sresting tremor, akathesia, loss of posture, eye blink, arm swing, facial expression, shuffling gait, destination(probs starting and stopping movements)Levodopa:drug that has been used in Parkinson's patients: is a precursor molecule to dopamineSinemetdrug that has been used in Parkinson's patients: makes 100% of levodopa available to cross the blood brain barrierReQuip:drug that has been used in Parkinson's patients: slows the loss of dopamine by more than 30%Other options of Parkinson treatmentfetal tissue transplants, surgery (pallidotomy[basal ganglia] or thalamotomy[thalamus]) are removed, and brain stimulationHuntingtons:genes contain an abnormally large number of base repeats of CAG (over 40=definitely will develop disease)Abnormal gene expression in patients with Huntingtons:results in loss of neurotransmitter input to the basal ganglia from cells containing GABA and acetylcholine (ACH)-dopamine runs wildXenazinedrug for HD: reduces amounts of dopamine activityElectroencephalograph (EEG)machine that records electrical communication between each of the electronsGran Mal seizure (generalized seizure)no warning, sudden loss of consciousness, tonic(stiffening), clonic (jerking), unresponsive state and muscles become flaccid, consuional period, sleep, and total amnesia of seizure eventsAbsence Seizures100% inherited, 15 seconds, altered states of consciousness, vacant state, blinking, lip smacking, picking movement of fingers, no recollection of events; in children under 12 years oldSimple Partial Seizuresbegins in one area of brain then spreads, aura may occur, tonic/clonic movemetns of one more more mmuscles on one side of the body, fully conscious, patient cannot control body movementscomplex partial seizuresoriginates in temporal lobe, hallucinations, deja vu, compulsive thoughts, feelings of unreality, pick at clothes, wander, run uncontrollably, rearrange furniture,Treatment for seizuresSimple/complex partial: Tegretol and Dilantin (exclusive action on sodium channel), Gabapentin: increase GABA levels in the brain; generalized epilepsies: medication of choice is Valproic acid; neurosurgery `Hyperactive Impulsive typeyoungest, male dominated, with less academic impairmentInattentive Typemore common in females with greater incidence of academic impairmentCombined ADHD:most impaired both behaviorally and academicallyNeuropathology of ADHD:decreased activity of frontal cortex and reduced concentrations of dopamine; poor judgment, impaired self monitoring, deficiencies in intrinsic motivation, "immature"ADHD symptoms caused by:low levels of norepinephrine(NE) and dopamine(DA)Decreased DA availabilitynigrostriatal pathway-motor controlDecreased NE activitylocus coerulesus to prefrontal cortexSleep as a Biological Adaptation1)energy conserving 2)prey or predator 3) species favors day or night to move aboutSleep as a Restorative Process (restoration theory)brain and body need to restore themselves; lack of sleep associated with poor cognitive performanceWhat phase of sleep is most important?Deep sleepSigmund Freud theory on sleepdreams act as symbolic fulfillment of unconscious wishesHobson theory on sleepDreams are fragmented and bizarre and reveal nothing more than the fact that the cortex has been activated; low activity in frontal cortexRevonsuodreams lead to enhanced performance in dealing with threatening life events; highly organized; biological importance; dream content incorporated the current emotional problems of the dreamerFatal Familial Insomniadegeneration of the thalamus and the formation of amyloid plaues; aspartic acid is used instead of asparagine in the process of builiding the prion protein.Fatal Familial Insomnia damage to thalamuscauses the brain to no longer move into sleep state; inability to produce tears or feel pain, poor reflexes, dementia, halluncinations, comaStages of Fatal Familial Insomnia1) progressive insomnia: four months, panic attacks and bizarre phobias 2) five months: hallucinations, panic, agitation, sweating 3) 3 months: total insomnia with weight loss 4) 6 months: dementia, total insomnia, muteness, and deathSleep apnea:when patient periodically stops breathing for significat lengths of time while asleepNarcolepsy:cataplexy: falling into REM sleep without the loss of consciousness, sleep paralysis: inability to move when falling asleep or waking, falling asleep at inappropriate times of dayTreatment of narcolepsy:Provigil: helps patients deal with daytime sleepinessPeriodic Limb Movement Disorderalso called nocturnal myoclonus-results in night time twitching of the body usually the legs (person wakes up and doesn't know why)Restless Leg Syndrometension/uneasiness in legs before falling asleep; Gabapentin: drug that enhances GABA activity seems effective; used to use drugs that increase dopamine levels-but those come with many side effectsREM Behavior Disorderact out dreams in which they are defending themselves: often older men with brain diseases; ACH is not blocked, thus allowing sleeping person to use their muscles during REM sleepSexosomniaperson will engage in sexual activity while asleepSleep medicine: Barbituratescreated more probs than they cured, interfered with sleep cycle, produced rapid tolerance to sedative effects, and low therapeutic indexSleep medicine: benzodiazepinesex. Ambien, High therapeutic index, no hangover, rapid sleep induction, no tolerance, normal sleepDementia Pugilisticaslurred speech, awkward gait, slowed thought processes, lack of emotional and behavioral control: caused by chronic and severy brain injuryPost Concussion Syndromeirritable, apathetic, confused, can't prioritize activities, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, can't concentrate, can't rememberCerebral ContusionsCerebral cortex becomes bruised either directly or indirectlyShaken Baby Syndromecaused by Indirect mechanical contactContracoupinjury to two areas of the neocortex produced by brain movementDiffuse Axonal Injurysevere twisting or stretching of axons due to Traumatic Brain Injury: results in coma, brief loss of consciousnessIsotropic StressTBI causes "pulse" or "pressure wave" moving through the brain at high speeds that chains the density of the inside of an individual brain cell: instant compression causes damaged to the internal structures of brain cellsTreatment for Severe Head Injurycoma, monitored with intracranial pressure monitor, and given blood clotting medication, if that doesnt work patients undergo neurosurgeryDrug treatment for Severe Head injuryAmphetamines stimulate recovery of motor skills and cognition by increasing the activity of norepinephrine; ritalin; boost dopamine and ACH levels promote recovery as they improve memory, mood, attention, language function, and motivationCerebrovascular Accidentsresult from a ruptured blood vessel in brain causing edema(development of plaque tissues on the walls of the vessel) that reduces/blocks normal blood flowHemorrhagic Strokecaused by rupture of a blood vessel due to high blood pressure or an aneurysm(weakening of vessel membrane)Cerebral Angiogrambrain scan in which radioactive dye is injected into the carotid artery(blood vessel that carries blood to the brain) - used when aneurysm is suspectedTreatment for Hemorrhagic Strokesendovascular surgery: a catheter is inserted through an artery in the patients leg and threaded into the brain, catheter fills the aneurysm with tiny platinum coils and its guided by a helmet shaped magnet hung over the patients headIschemic Strokefatty plaque forms on cerebral blood vessel and reduces the amount of blood flow to one or more areas of the brain.StenosisNarrowing of the arterial wallHypoxiareduced oxygen to brain caused by stenosisThrombosisif blood clot forms on top of the plaque tissueEmbolusif a piece of the blood clot breaks off and lodges in a smaller blood vesselAnoxiaIf embolus completely blocks blood flor to an area of the brain(complete lack of oxygen)Infarctcell death due to lack of oxygenTreatment for Ischemic Strokecooling brain, Calcium and glutimate channel blockers hels with excitotoxity, blood clotting medicineFactors in Brain Injury Recovery (who recovers easiest)age (young), sex (women), IQ (higher), coma length (longer), location (frontal lobe easier than thalamus), Type (stroke does not recover as well as patients with head injury)