IB BIOLOGY ORGANIC MOLECULES REVIEW
Terms in this set (88)
building block of proteins that consists of a basic amino group (NH2), an acidic carboxylic group (COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and an organic side group (-R) attached to the carbon atom.
the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules, including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions.
organic compounds with the general formula (CH2O)n, including sugars, starches, and celluloses, that are an important source of food and energy for animals.
the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules, including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers
a chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms.
sugar (carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides joined by condensation.
a simple monosaccharide sugar (C6H12O6) that serves as the main source of energy and as an important metabolic substrate for most living organisms.
organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water, but soluble in non-polar organic solvents.
the process involving biochemical reactions of life.
the simplest form of carbohydrate (examples include fructose, glucose, and ribose) that constitutes the building blocks of more complex forms of sugar.
linear chains (DNA or RNA) of monomeric nucleotides, whereby each monomeric unit is composed of phosphoric acid, sugar, and nitrogenous base.
a covalent bond that joins amino acids, at the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the other amino acid, with the release of a molecule of water.
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
a polymer of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
organic molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds and taking a particular three-dimensional shape.
a monosaccharide (chemical formula C5H10O5) found in RNA and other metabolically important compounds.
a fatty acid with all potential hydrogen binding sites filled.
Saturated Fatty Acid
a form of fatty acid that lacks unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms.
lipid-based hormones that are related to the four-ring structure of cholesterol.
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
a molecule created from ammonia and carbon dioxide as the final nitrogenous excretion product of many organisms.
the force by which individual molecules cling to surrounding material and surfaces.
the temperature at which the vapour pressure of a given liquid reaches atmospheric pressure and thus starts to boil (100°C for water).
the force by which individual molecules stick together.
the temperature at which a liquid solidifies (0°C for water)
Specific heat capacity
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water by one degree Celsius (water has to absorb 4.184 joules of heat for the temperature of one gram of water to increase by 1°C).
a weak bond caused by electrostatic attraction between a positively-charged part of one molecule and a negatively-charged part of another.
molecules capable of interacting with water through hydrogen bonding (having an affinity for water).
molecules that lack an affinity for water (water insoluble).
property of having distinct and opposite charges (poles).
the property of a substance of being soluble (dissolved).
a liquid in which substances (or solutes) are dissolved to form a solution.
Surface tension (of water)
the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between molecules of water at the surface.
property that allows light to penetrate molecules of water
a soluble polysaccharide and highly-branched polymer of glucose found in plants as one of the two components of starch (the other being amylose).
a polysaccharide found in plants as one of the two components of starch (making up approximately 20-30% of the structure).
Body mass index
(BMI) a measure for human body shape based on an individual's mass and height (kg/m2).
a polysaccharide with the formula (C6H10O5)n, consisting of a linear chain of between several hundred to over ten thousand β-linked D-glucose units.
formation of larger molecules involving the removal of water from smaller component molecules.
any of the group of a long chain of hydrocarbon derived from the breakdown of fats having a single carboxylic group and aliphatic tail.
a metabolic intermediate and structural component of the major classes of biological lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids.
a branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in liver and muscle cells, and functions as secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells
chemical compounds of the same chemical formula but different structure (cis or trans)
a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in milk and consists of galactose and glucose
a disaccharide formed when two glucose monomers join together
consist of a single component
an unsaturated molecule that contains only one double or triple bond in the carbon chain
a compound made up of several repeating units (monomers)
a complex carbohydrate composed of a chain of monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds
a type of molecule that contains more than one double or triple bond in the carbon chain
Saturated fatty acids
a form of fatty acid that lacks unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms
a polysaccharide carbohydrate (C6H10O5)n found in plants that consists of a large number of glucose monosaccharides
a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid
Unsaturated fatty acid
a form of fatty acid that contains more than one double bond between carbon atoms
the main protein of human plasma. Its main function is to regulate the osmotic pressure of blood
building block of proteins consisting of the basic amino group (NH2), the acidic carboxylic group (COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and an organic side group (R) attached to the carbon atom
a glycoprotein that forms strong fibres, found in connective tissue and bone (the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom)
a structural change in a protein that results in a permanent loss of biological properties
two amino acids linked together
a heritable section of DNA that controls a specific trait
group of large glycoproteins that function as antibodies in the immune response by binding with specific antigens
a hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by synthesizing glycogen
a covalent bond that joins amino acids, at the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the other amino acid, with the release of a molecule of water
(ribulose carboxylase) is the enzyme that catalyses the first step of photosynthesis (probably the most abundant protein on Earth)
cell organelle functioning as the site of protein synthesisdx
the specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate
an enzyme found in the blood, and in most living cells, that catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
a measure of the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a specific reaction
a class of proteins that catalyses chemical reactions
decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water
the enzyme responsible for catalysing the split of lactose into galactose and glucose
all of an organism's chemical processes
the substance on which an enzyme works
an organic base found in DNA and RNA
pairs with thymine (or uracil in RNA)
Complementary base pairs
the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as cytosine paired with guanine and adenine with thymine (or uracil in RNA)
an organic base found in DNA and RNA in which it pairs with guanine
an enzyme that catalyses the elongation of new DNA during replication
a nucleic acid consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA
an organic base found in DNA and RNA in which it pairs with cytosine
Nucleic acids biological
molecules, such as DNA or RNA, composed of nucleotides that control cellular functions and heredity
the building blocks of nucleic acids consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
a nucleic acid consisting of a long single-stranded chain of nucleotides involved in protein synthesis
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA during transcription
an organic base found in DNA, but not in RNA, that pairs with adenine
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA, but not in DNA, that pairs with adenine