President can appoint, with the advice and consent of the Senate, "Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointmetns are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be stablished by Law." Has authority to make nearly 3000 appointments to administration, technically appoints mroe than 75000 military personnel. Presidents look for blend of loyalty, competence, and integrity. Now Presidents are appointing more women and minorities. Elections are not new to democracy, but the type of campaigns we currently witness are. The modern campaign demands much more than a few whistle stops and posters. Handlers coordinate advance work, scheduling, speech writing, media, polling, finance and spin. Running a campaign is now a career choice. More so, some have wondered if governing has become just another name for campaigning. With handlers ever present, the blur between policy and politics is ever apparent. Presidential handlers have been called "the most powerful political figures America has never heard of." Electability once anchored on character, with modern day marketers handling candidates, winning now depends more on likeability. With a voyeuristic media and a more savvy electorate, candidates need to be cautious of their image at all times. They need proper handlers. Whereas Congressional authority is given constitutional advantages, the vast reach of presidential power is found through political means. Though not always true, Theodore Roosevelt in 1909 understood this when he said, "I suppose my critics will call that preaching but I have got such a bully pulpit." It should be noted, however, that in those days the word "bully" meant "excellent," "superb," and "wonderful." Roosevelt understood that the status of president gave the office a unique position to persuade and therefore the ability to accomplish great things. Regardless of personality, the American public looks to the president for leadership, guidance and direction. We, more often than not, follow. Today the connotation of "bully" is to be a "ruffian" or "intimidator." In either case, whether a bully is a sweetheart or a junk-yard dog, the president of the United States has gained by the nature of the office great and grande power to advance an agenda that is difficult to impede. The Bill of Rights, when ratified in 1791, DID NOT apply to the states. Thus varying degrees of civil liberties were quite common from state to state. This was federalism in action. But what if certain inalienable rights, rights which when defended forged our union, were at best uninforced and worse disregarded in some states? Was our republic founded on false pretense? With the passing of the 14th Amendment, in 1868, a new era of civil liberty was born. Section 1 states: "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens...nor deprive any person...without due process of law...nor deny...the equal protection of the laws." Soon thereafter, the Supreme Court began exploring the reach of such words. In the Slaughterhouse cases (1873)it was argued that certain privileges and immunities "belong of right to the citizens of all free governments." Yet it was not until 1925, in the case Gitlow v. N.Y., when a Court majority for the first time applied such thinking to a specific provision found in the Bill of Rights. Here, the Court for the first time used the language of the 14th Amendment to "incorporate" the free speech clause of the 1st Amendment. Thus, the Supreme Court, not local state governments, became the overseer of basic civil liberties.