Critical Thinking in IB Psychology
Terms in this set (61)
Refers to how consistent findings from an investigation or measuring device are. A measuring device is said to be reliable if it produces consistent results every time it is used.
Correlating the judgments of two or more ratings of behaviour, as when using a rating scale. Can happen in a questionnaire or interview when behaviour has been rated or in an observation when behaviour has been rated.
A method of assessing reliability of a questionnaire or psychological test by assessing the same person on two separate occasions. This shows to what extent the test (or other measure) produces the same answers i.e. is consistent or reliable.
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other settings and situations. A form of external validity.
A kind of validity, concerned with what goes on inside a study - the extent to which the researcher is measuring what was intended. In an experiment, this includes the control of variables to ensure that changes in the DV are solely due to the IV.
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other people and populations. A form of external validity.
The extent to which research findings and conclusions can be broadly applied to the population. This is made possible if the sample of participants is representative of the population. It also depends on good internal and external validity.
Refers to how an experiment mirrors the real world. The simulated task environment is realistic to the extent to which experiences encountered in the simulated environment will occur in the real world.
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other historical times and eras. A form of external validity.
These arise when a conflict exists between the rights of the participants in research studies and the goals of research to produce authentic, valid and worthwhile data.
A set of principles designed to help professionals behave honestly and with integrity.
An ethical issue, most usually where participant is not told the true aim of the study and thus cannot give informed consent. Occasionally deception may involve the provision of false information.
An ethical issue that refers to a zone of inaccessibility of the mind or body and the trust this will not be 'invaded'. Contrasts to confidentiality. Can be dealt with in some instances by providing anonymity.
An ethical issue concerned with a participant's right to have personal information protected.
An important aspect of confidentiality; a participant remains anonymous i.e. their name is not stated in research.
Participants in a psychological research should not experience embarrassment, loss of self-esteem or any other psychological damage - greater than they might expect to experience in everyday life.
A post research interview designed to inform the participants of the true nature of the study and to restore them to a state they were in at the start of the study.
Right to withdraw
An ethical issue; participants should have the right to withdraw from participating in a research study if they are uncomfortable with the study.
An ethical issue and guideline whereby participants must be given comprehensive information concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it, in order to make an informed decision about whether to participate.
A theory where an observation or argument can be conceived to negate it.
Being uninfluenced by personal opinions or past experiences, being free of bias. As distinct from subjectivity.
From a personal view, likely to be biased.
A method of gaining knowledge through the gathering of evidence that is observable, testable and available through direct experience.
The opportunity to repeat an investigation under the same conditions in order to test the validity and/or reliability of its findings.
The extent to which any variable is held constant or regulated by the researcher, often in order to reduce the influence of extraneous variables.
Cause & effect
The principle of causation; does the study or theory uncover what causes another thing to happen.
A mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates a relationship between two variables.
Any cue from the researcher or research situation that may be interpreted by participants as revealing the purpose of the investigation. This may lead to participants changing their behaviour within the research situation.
In repeated measures design, a confounding variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented e.g. practice or boredom.
Social desirability bias
A tendency for respondents to answer a question or behave in such a way that presents them in a positive light.
Any effect of the investigator's behaviour (conscious or unconscious) on the research outcome (DV). This may include everything from the design of the study to the selection of, and interaction with, participants in the research process.
Error made by participants in a psychological investigation concerning accuracy of recall regarding events or experiences from the past.
Linked to the concept of trustworthiness of research and whether research findings accurately reflect the meanings as they are described by participants. Equates to internal validity for qualitative research.
Reflecting on the ways in which factors such as the researcher's values, beliefs, experiences, interests and political views have influenced the research.
Thinking about the ways in which knowledge has been generated in the study e.g. has the research question limited what could be found, is the design or analysis of data biased, would a different approach bring a different understanding?
A group of people who take part in a psychological investigation. The sample is drawn from a target population and is presumed to be representative of that population.
The participants' ideas of the research and the researcher which can affect the trustworthiness of the data.
Comparing the results of two or more studies of the same thing to see if they are in agreement. This demonstrates validity of the individual results.
The belief that behaviour is caused by influences (internal or external) that we cannot control.
A form of determinism where behaviour is assumed to be solely caused by genes.
A form of determinism where behaviour is assumed to be solely caused by biological factors.
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces.
An approach to research that focuses more on the individual case as a means of understanding behaviour, rather than aiming to formulate general laws of behaviour (the nomothetic approach).
Attempts to study behaviour through the development of general principles and universal laws.
Nature vs nurture
The question of whether behaviour is more determined by nature (inherited and genetic factors) or nurture (all influences after conception i.e. experience).
When considering human behaviour, bias is a tendency to treat one individual or group in a different way to others. In the context of gender bias psychological research or theory may offer a view that does not justifiably represent the experience and behaviour of men or women (usually women).
Psychological theories that assume there are real and enduring differences between men and women. These enhances or undervalue members of either sex, but typically undervalue females.
Theories that ignore or minimise differences between the sexes.
A theory or investigation that is male-centred; when 'normal' behaviour is judged according to a male standard (meaning female behaviour is often judged abnormal by comparison).
A theory or investigation that is female-centred; when it is concerned with taking a predominantly female point of view.
Judging other cultures by the standards of one's own culture. In its extreme form it is the belief in the superiority of one's own culture which may lead to prejudice and discrimination towards other cultures.
A study or theory that is restricted by belonging to and referring to only a specific culture.
A technique or theory developed in one culture and then used to study the behaviour of people in different culture with different norms, values or experiences.
Refers to a tendency to ignore cultural differences and interpret all phenomena through the 'lens' of one's own culture.
A form of reductionism which attempts to explain social and psychological phenomena at lower biological level (in terms of actions of genes, hormones etc.).
An argument or theory which proposes that it only makes sense to study an indivisible system rather than its constituent parts.
A way to explain behaviour; a general perspective or mode of thinking e.g. biological approach (BLOA).
Biological approach/level of analysis
Explanations of behaviour that focus on biological (physiological or genetic) factors.
Cognitive approach/level of analysis
The term cognitive has come to mean 'mental processes', so this approach is focused on how our mental processes (e.g. thought processes, memory, perception, attention) affect behaviour.
Socio-cultural approach/level of analysis
Explanations of behaviour that focus on social and cultural (interactions, values, groups) factors.
The accuracy with which psychologists can say what causes an illness. A group of people diagnosed with the same disorder will have the same factors causing it.