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45 terms

anthro test 1

Which of the following best describes the concept of "prehistory?
a. The time before history existed.
b. A stage of primitive development.
c. The time when evolution was occurring.
d. A time period before written records.
The world's first cities developed in
a. Mesoamerica.
b. Mesopotamia.
c. China.
d. The Indus Valley.
e. Egypt.
What do proponents of the hydraulic hypothesis for the origin of the state argue?
a. Irrigation began in China and spread along ancient trade routes.
b. States were the by-products of the organizational requirements of large irrigation systems.
c. Irrigation systems favored democracy.
d. Irrigation provided the advantage that allowed anatomically modern humans to displace the Neandertals.
e. Mesolithic states developed so that they could build irrigation systems.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of states?
a. They control specific regional territories.
b. They have productive farming economies.
c. They have record-keeping systems.
d. They are stratified into social classes.
e. They lack hereditary inequality
An archaeological "site" is
a. anything an archaeologist finds interesting to look at.
b. any place can be a site.
c. any spot on the landscape with detectable traces of human activity.
d. a place where humans stayed for at least a month.
e. none of the above.
Which of the following is true?
a. Food production allowed most people to work less.
b. Food production reduced warfare.
c. Food production yielded more nutritious diets. d. Food producers work harder than foragers. e. Food producing societies are more democratic than foraging societies.
"Neolithic" means
a. Primitive.
b. Pre-historic.
c. New Stone (Age).
d. Before the domestication of plants and animals
A small blade of flint or similar stone, that could be hafted along with others in a wooden handle is called a
a. monolith.
b. stone point.
c. megalith.
d. microlith.
e. none of the above.
Natufian culture was
a. a Neolithic culture in Mesoamerica between about 18,000 and 15,000 years ago.
b. a Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.
c. a Paleolithic culture living in Western Europe between 25,000 and 19,000 years ago.
d. a Microlithic culture living in the area of the Solomon Islands between about 5,500 and 4,000 years ago.
One of the major advances in understanding how tools were used is in the analysis of
a. how tools much have been made.
b. how tools fit in the hand of the user.
c. the crystal structure of stone.
d. the microwear of the tool, using powerful microscopes to observe the striations and wear patterns on the tool.
Who, in accepting the concept of evolution, was the first to actually attempt to describe a mechanism by which species change?
a. Carolus Linnaeus b. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck c. Charles Lyell d. Charles Darwin e. Erasmus Darwin
The term evolution refers to
a. changes in the genetic make-up of a population from one generation to the next.
b. the process of speciation.
c. ongoing biological processes, including genetic changes within populations and the appearance of new species.
d. all of these.
What is the name of the Irish archbishop who argued that the world was created in 4004 B.C.?
a. Copernicus b. Linnaeus
c. uniformitarianism d. Ussher
e. Lyell
A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is called
a. the Hominidae. b. a species. c. a family. d. a hominid. e. a species and family only.
Well into the 19th century in Europe, there were widely held beliefs inhibiting the acceptance of biological evolution. What did these concepts include?
a. the notion that species did not change
b. a recent origin of life on earth
c. the concept that species were continuously changing
d. all of these
e. A and B only
In formulating his theory of natural selection, Darwin ____.
a. recognized the importance of biological variation within a population
b. applied his knowledge of domesticated species to undomesticated ones
c. appreciated the fact that population size is limited by availability of food
d. all of these
e. none of these
The term hominin refers to a distinction made at what taxonomic level?
a. Tribe b. Genus c. Species d. Subfamily e. none of these
"Fitness," in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual's ____.
a. strength b. reproductive success
c. aggressiveness d. size
e. age at death
Primatology is the study of
a. human evolution. b. human skeletal material. c. skeletal remains at crime scenes. d. disease in earlier human groups.
e. nonhuman primates.
In the United States, anthropology is comprised of _____ major subfields.
a. 2 b. 7 c. 6 d. 4 e. 1
The subdiscipline of anthropology concerned with various aspects of human language is called
a. primatology. b. linguistic anthropology.
c. ethnology. d. paleoanthropology.
e. anthropometry.
The study of human biology within the framework of human evolution is the domain of
a. cultural anthropology.
b. physical/biological anthropology.
c. primatology.
d. osteology.
e. archaeology.
Forensic anthropologists
a. study disease and trauma in ancient populations.
b. apply anthropological techniques to the law. c. are primarily concerned with the recovery of material culture remains.
d. examine the relationships between medical treatment and culturally determined views of disease.
e. study nonhuman primates.
The initial step in the scientific method is
a. the formation of a theory.
b. the formation of a hypothesis.
c. to perform an experiment.
d. to publish a scientific article.
e. to collect data and establish facts.
A scientific theory is
a. an untested hypothesis.
b. a hypothesis that has yet to be falsified.
c. a provisional explanation for a phenomenon. d. none of these
e. an untested hypothesis, AND a provisional explanation for a phenomenon.
Several events had combined to alter Western Europeans' ideas about the earth by the 18th century. These included
a. the circumnavigation of the globe.
b. the discovery of the New World.
c. the discovery of the heliocentric universe.
d. all of these
Who first recognized that species were groups of organisms that were distinguished from other such groups by their ability to reproduce?
a. John Ray
b. Charles Darwin
c. Carolus Linnaeus
d. Alfred Russel Wallace
e. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Who developed the binomial system of classifying biological organisms?
a. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
b. Georges Cuvier
c. Carolus Linnaeus
d. Charles Lyell
e. Erasmus Darwin
The theory that the frequent use of an organ caused it to be enhanced was developed by
a. Charles Darwin.
b. Carolus Linnaeus.
c. Georges Cuvier.
d. Charles Lyell.
e. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
Who proposed that population size increases at a faster rate than food supplies?
a. Erasmus Darwin
b. Alfred Russel Wallace
c. Thomas Malthus
d. Charles Lyell
e. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Who wrote Principles of Geology and emphasized the principle of uniformitarianism?
a. Charles Darwin
b. Charles Lyell
c. Alfred Russel Wallace
d. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
e. Thomas Malthus
Mary Anning is credited with
a. the principle of uniformitarianism.
b. being the co discoverer of natural selection. c. finding numerous important fossils during the 19th century.
d. being married to Charles Darwin.
e. none of these
Charles Darwin
a. grew up in modest circumstances.
b. began to doubt the fixity of species during a voyage around the world in the 1830s.
c. received no formal education.
d. spent two years in Africa where he developed the theory of natural selection.
e. was a physician who studied natural history as a hobby.
The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those who possess less favorable traits is the basis for the theory of
a. uniformitarianism.
b. natural selection.
c. the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
d. catastrophism.
e. the fixity of species
Darwin based his evolutionary ideas on
a. the religious views of the time of a very young earth. b. the reality of the concept of fixity of species. c. an understanding of modern genetic principles. d. all of these e. none of these
Selective pressures
a. remain constant, regardless of the environment. b. are unimportant in the evolutionary process. c. can change if environmental conditions change. d. are directionless and random. e. are not related to adaptation.
"Fitness", in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual's
a. strength. b. reproductive success. c. aggressiveness. d. size. e. age at death.
Which is/are the characteristics of primates' prehensile hands?
a. Retention of 5 digits b. Opposable thumb c. Nails instead of claws d. Tactile pads e. All of these
a. teeth are generalized because primates are omnivorous. b. teeth are specialized for processing one type of food. c. premolars and molars are indistinguishable from those found in carnivores. d. tooth form is not correlated with their diet. e. none of these
The primate emphasis on the visual sense is reflected in
a. the reduction in the size of structures related to the sense of smell. b. the presence of color vision in most species. c. a more forward facing position of the eyes relative to most other mammals. d. all of these
Which of the following are vertebrates?
a. birds b. reptiles c. amphibians d. mammals e. all of these
Reptiles were the dominant form of land vertebrate during the
a. Cenozoic. b. Paleozoic. c. Mesozoic. d. Precambrian. e. Permian.
Monotremes are
a. marsupials. b. viviparous reptiles.
c. egg-laying fish. d. placental mammals.
e. egg-laying mammals.
In _________ the young are born in an extremely immature state and complete development in their mother's external pouch.
a. placental mammals b. monotremes
c. marsupials d. reptiles e. none of these
The diversification of reptiles facilitated by the evolution of the reptilian egg is a good example of
a. parallel evolution. b. specialization.
c. homology. d. adaptive radiation.
e. devolution