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Psychology Ch. 9-10

STUDY
PLAY
What do cognitive psychologists study?
study these mental activities:
- concept formation
- problem solving
- decision making
- judgment formation
Define CONCEPT
mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Define PROTOTYPE
mental image or best example of a category
(matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (feathered creatures relate to a prototypical bird)
Define ALGORITHM
methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem (i.e. a recipe)
Define HEURISTIC
["eureka!" - "I have it"] simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
(usually speedier but more error-prone)
Define INSIGHT
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
(contrasts with strategy-based solutions)
Define CONFIRMATION BIAS
tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Define FIXATION
inability to see a problem from a new perspective (impediment to problem solving) -- "think outside the box!"
Define FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS
[think: NOT MacGyver]
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions (what else can an ice cube tray be used for?)
impediment to problem solving
Define Representativeness Heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes (can lead to ignorance of other pertinent info)
Define Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory... if instances come readily to mind (vividness or news), we presume such events are common
Overconfidence
tendency to be more confident than correct
tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
"experts" - overvalued in our society
"I don't know" - undervalued
Framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments...
Sale : ground beef- 25% fat or 75% lean
Water: Natural flavor
Belief Perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Define LANGUAGE
our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning (most nonverbal) -- we are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world's languages
Five stages of language development
Babbling, One-Word, Two-Word, Telegraphic speech
Babbling Stage
beginning at 3 to 4 months
the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-Word Stage
from about age 1 to 2
the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage
beginning about age 2
the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic Speech
early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram--"go car"--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words; after this stage, language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
Define LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
(interplay of thought and language)
Intelligence
ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence (IQ) test revised by Terman at Stanford University (created originally to see which kids needed more attention; now mis-used as entrance exams)
Mental Age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet:
chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance (child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8)
Define "IQ"
Intelligence Quotient: defined ORIGINALLY as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
[IQ = ma/ca x 100]
On contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
Factor Analysis
statistical procedure that identifies CLUSTERS of related items (called factors) on a test
used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
General Intelligence (g)
factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities
measured by every task on an intelligence test
Savant Syndrome
condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (i.e. computation, drawing)
Social Intelligence
the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully (are cocktail parties terrifying or no big deal?)
Emotional Intelligence
ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
(your own and others)
Creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
- expertise
- imaginative thinking skills
- venturesome personality
- intrinsic motivation
- creative environment
WAIS
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is the most widely used intelligence test; subtests include verbal and performance (nonverbal). Mean is 100; 96% of people score between 70 & 130; 68% score between 85 and 115; very small % score below 55 or above 145.
Aptitude Test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
aptitude is "the capacity to learn"
Achievement Test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group"
Normal Curve
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
assessed by consistency of scores on:
- two halves of the test
- alternate forms of the test
- retesting
Validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to (i.e. racism or social contact or an understanding of human rights)
Content Validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (driving test that samples driving tasks)
Criterion
behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict
the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
Predictive Validity (aka criterion-related validity)
success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict (assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior)
Mental Retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70
- produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life
- varies from mild to profound
- DOES NOT MEAN NOT INTELLIGENT - can be emotionally perceptive
Down Syndrome
retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
(historical change: people used to be institutionalized and sterilized)
Four degrees of mental retardation
Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound (for profound, institutionalization may be the only option) - see table in textbook.
Heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes (variability depends on the range of populations and environments studied)
Stereotype Threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype