Terms in this set (69)
According to the National Registry on Exonerations, between the years of 1989 and 2012, _______percent of documented exonerations for rapes and robberies involved mistaken eyewitness identifications.
The Innocence Project has found that mistaken identification accounts for more wrongful convictions than
problems with snitches.
______________are the leading cause of wrongful convictions, particularly in cases
of robbery and sexual assaults.
Sometimes police just look for evidence that implicates a suspect that has been identified by an eyewitness and stop investigating any other leads. This situation is an illustration of
The cases of Calvin C. Johnson and Cornelius Dupree provide examples of _________________________, or cases in which the police stop investigating other leads and focus only developing evidence against the suspects identified by eyewitnesses and believed to be guilty.
Only ____ states have laws that compensate individuals who were wrongly imprisoned.
Mistakes in the identification process typically occur
During the investigation and when the crime is being committed
Last night Laura was robbed at gunpoint. When asked to describe the perpetrator, she found that all she could remember was the gun and not the way the perpetrator looked. Which of the best following describes this circumstance?
weapon focus effect
_________________________ is when someone unconsciously selects the information he or she will focus on and process most likely because of having a limited attentional capacity and an inability to process a lot of information at one time.
Bob was attacked by a drunken man with a knife. According to information presented in Chapter 5, it is possible that the presence of this weapon affected Bob's memory of
The perpetrator's face and what he said
he presence of a weapon during the witnessing of a crime often affects
attention and recall.
During an extremely stressful situation, how is encoding affected?
Often it is incomplete
In one study of soldiers' ability to make eyewitness identifications after being exposed to varying levels of stress in an interrogation, only ______ percent of soldiers who experienced high stress were able to make correct identifications.
Diane was the sole witness to a crime. After witnessing the crime, she talked with her husband and her co-workers about what she saw. According to Chapter 5, these discussions potentially can taint her memory of the crime event for it can
introduce post-event information that may alter her memory for the original event.
In one of Loftus' studies, a first group of subjects was asked how fast the car was going "when it ran the stop sign" while a second group was asked how fast the car was going "when it turned right." When later asked if they had seen a stop sign
53% of the first group said yes; 35% of the second group said yes
Meta-analyses of 53 studies showed that the longer the retention interval,
the more memory loss for previously-seen faces
A robbery occurs at a liquor store. The clerk identifies the defendant in a police lineup. The defendant claims he had been in the store earlier to get change, but had not robbed the store. If the defendant is telling the truth, the clerk's identification would reflect
A researcher had one group of study participants witness a staged crime in which an older perpetrator stole items from a desk. A second group of study participants witness a staged crime in which a younger perpetrator stole the same items from the desk. After witnessing the crime, the witnesses are asked to report what they saw. The value of doing an experiment and controlling what is presented is that the researcher knows exactly what the witnesses saw. This is called
System variables are
Which of the following would be considered an estimator variable in the dichotomy of eyewitness identification variables provided by Gary Wells?
Lighting conditions at the time of the crime
Which of the following would be considered a postdiction variable?
Confidence of the witness
The other race effect refers to the idea that
eyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing and identifying members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another race or ethnic group.
__________________________________ refers to the differences between faces of one race and faces of another race in terms of the variability in facial features.
For a white eyewitness to correctly identify a black culprit, those who provide a cognitive interpretation of the other race effect, a physiognomic variability approach, might suggest that the eyewitness
focus on encoding the culprit's skin tone.
Which of the following represents social psychologists' explanation for the other race effect?
According to the in-group/out-group differences hypothesis, when we encounter someone from the same race or ethnic group as ourselves, we immediately devote our attention to distinguishing that person from other members of the in-group. This is an explanation of why we tend to be
better at identifying those within our own ethnic group or race than those from other races or ethnic groups.
Which of the following is true?
Current evidence suggests that neither gender is superior to the other with regard to making accurate eyewitness identifications.
Recent research suggests that women are ____________ at recognizing male faces than female faces.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding how the age of an eyewitness tends to impact lineup identifications?
Older adults and young children are more likely to make a mistaken identification in a lineup in which the perpetrator is absent than young and middle-aged adults.
The cognitive interview that emphasizes context reinstatement would not
hypnotizing the victim
State v. Henderson (2011) relied on social science research when
A. identifying the factors judges should consider when evaluating an eyewitness identification.
Results of a meta-analysis of 65 experiments examining the effectiveness of the cognitive interview suggest the cognitive interview
increases correct recall, but also increases the recall of incorrect details.
Researchers recommend that a person conducting a lineup should tell the witness that the culprit may or may not be present in the lineup. Without this instruction, what tends to happen?
False identifications tend to increase.
The eyewitness may feel that they must choose someone.
The eyewitness tends to choose the person who most resembles the person they witnessed
According to Chapter 5, what is the recommendation regarding the selection of fillers for a lineup?
Have all members (fillers and the suspect) of the lineup match the witness's description.
According to information presented in Chapter 5, researchers have found that one of the following is preferable for lineups in most situations. Which one?
In a meta-analysis comparing simultaneous and sequential presentations in line-up procedures, mistaken identifications were reduced by about ________ when presentations were _______________________ and correct identifications were reduced by ________ when presentations were __________________________.
A. 22%, sequential; 8%, sequential
In a simultaneous presentation lineup _________________ is used, while in a sequential presentation lineup ___________________ is used.
relative judgment; absolute judgment
Greg is viewing a lineup with simultaneous presentation. He had told police that the person he saw commit the crime is white with light color hair. When presented with six white people in his lineup, he chooses the person who has the lightest color hair in the group. How would we best characterize this judgment?
A line-up procedure in which the police officers administrating the line-up and the eyewitness making the identification are both unaware of the potential suspect would reflect
Thomas is the victim of a crime, and he has been called down to the police station to view a lineup. After some thought, he chooses the fourth person from the left. The detective administering the lineup says, "Good, we thought that was the one." According to research presented in Chapter 5, what is the likely result of this confirming feedback?
Thomas is more willing to testify at the trial.
Thomas now sees this person's face more clearly in his memories of the crime.
Thomas feels more confident about his identification
Research tends to show that the relationship between the accuracy of an eyewitness' testimony and the eyewitness' confidence or certainty is
Which of the following is an effective way to eliminate false confidence in eyewitness identifications?
asking the witness to provide a statement of certainty before the lineup administrator provides any feedback
Which of the following was found by Brewer and Burke (2002) to have a strong impact on jurors' verdict decisions?
the witness's level of confidence
Research suggests jurors overestimate eyewitness accuracy because
they assume eyewitnesses are accurate and have credible memories.
they believe eyewitness testimony reflects memory quality, not questioning or
line up procedures.
they trust eyewitness's over-confidence in their identifications.
Loftus (1974) gave subjects a description of an armed robbery. Eighteen percent presented with only circumstantial evidence convicted the defendant. When an eyewitness' identification was provided in addition to the circumstantial evidence, what percentage convicted the defendant?
Which of these is not a reason given by judges when they decide not to let psychologists testify as expert witnesses regarding the accuracy of eyewitness identification?
For courtroom testimony, expert witnesses require a medical degree, and psychologists do not have this degree.
The Telfaire instruction has been found to ______________ mock jurors' sensitivity to eyewitness evidence.
According to Chapter 5, children over the age of six can make reasonably reliable identifications from lineups as long as
The perp is in the line up and they have had extended contact with them
Six-year-old Corey is a witness to a crime, and he has been asked to view a lineup. Unfortunately, the true perpetrator is not in the lineup. Researchers would predict that Corey, as compared to adults,
more likely to give a false positive
If one is questioning a child witness, what features would be incorporated in a good investigative interview?
let the child give their own description of events, and not ask suggestive questions
Specific questioning of children is problematic because
it requires children to provide precise details which may have been forgotten.
it is suggestive and often leading.
increases the risk of obtaining inaccurate information.
Some children have experienced multiple incidents of sexual abuse. What tends to happen to a child's recall of repeated events?
Although repetition enhances memory for aspects of the event that are held constant, it impairs the ability to recall details that vary with each recurrence.
Multiple interviews using open-ended questions may be helpful when interviewing children because of
the reminiscence effect
Which of the following has been shown to play a role in the suggestive questioning of child witnesses?
selective reinforcement of answers
London and her colleagues identified adults with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse and learned that _________ had disclosed the abuse while they were children.
Alexander et al. (2005) contacted adolescents and young adults who had been involved in a study years earlier that was conducted to assess the effects of criminal prosecutions on child abuse victims. These researchers asked respondents to indicate which events had previously happened to them and which event was the most traumatic. According to Chapter 5, what did these researchers find?
Respondents who designated child sexual abuse as their most traumatic experience were very accurate in reporting the details of their experiences.
Child witnesses are generally viewed as ______ credible than adult witnesses; child victims in a sexual abuse case are viewed as ______ credible than adults.
In Coy v. Iowa (1988) the Supreme Court overturned Coy's conviction because
the one-way screen placed in front of him deprived him of his opportunity to confront his accusers.
In Maryland v. Craig (1990), the court upheld a Maryland law permitting
use of a one-way closed-circuit television to present a child's testimony.
Goodman and her colleagues (1998) found that the use of one-way closed-circuit television to present the testimony of a child had which of the following effects?
The children were viewed as less believable than children who testified in open court.
It generally resulted in more accurate testimony.
According to Chapter 5, which of the following has been used in court in an attempt to lessen a child's trauma when testifying?
a one-way screen has been placed in front of the defendant
the child has testified on closed-circuit television
permit a support person to sit with the child during testimony
Emotionally-motivated forgetting that is hypothesized to result from traumatic experiences is called
An unconscious process in which victims of abuse escape the full impact of an event by psychologically detaching themselves from it is called
In Linda Williams' (1994) study, why did women not report sexual abuse experienced as a child?
They had repressed it.
They were so young when it happened; they were not fully aware of the abuse.
They were unwilling to share this information with the interviewer.
Twenty-eight year old Stephanie was in a study in which she was asked questions about the abuse she suffered when she was a very young child (this abuse was well documented by medical reports that Stephanie has not seen). Stephanie insists that she did not experience abuse. Which of the following could explain why Stephanie is not reporting this well-documented abuse?
She repressed memories of the abuse.
Stephanie was so young when it happened; she wasn't fully aware of the abuse.
Stephanie does remember the abuse; she doesn't want to divulge this information to the researcher.
Which of the following has not been used by "memory focused" psychotherapists
The Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse, appointed by the American Psychological Association,
had a report written by experimental research psychologists that indicated that suggestive information can degrade memory and false memories are relatively easy to create.
had a report written by clinical psychologists that suggested that abuse can lead a child to use dissociative coping strategies and may interfere with the retrieval of memories.
could not agree on a final conclusion.
Loftus and Pickrell (1995) constructed a false story about being lost while shopping at the age of five. They had subjects read this story, and write about what they remembered about the event. What approximate percentage of subjects remembered this event that never happened?
Gary Ramona successfully sued
two therapists for implanting false memories of abuse in his daughter.