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Honorsand Bio Macromolecules
Practice what we learned
Terms in this set (108)
found in fruits-5 sided ring
product of photosynthesis-6 sided rings
table sugar-contains glucose and fructose
sugar in milk
energy storing compound in plants
gives cell wall rigidness
Stored in muscles and liver, animal starch
The creation of complex molecules from simple ones (anabolism).
Composed of the elements C, H, & O in a 1:2:1 ratio. Used as storage forms of energy.
Single sugar subunits. Include Fructose,Glucose (C6H12O6),Galactose.
Involves loss of a water molecule when building a larger molecules
Polymers or chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits. Includes Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose.
Glucose and Glycogen
Store energy in animals
Stores energy in plants.
Serves a structural role in plants, long chain of glucose with cross links
formed by removing water.
A process in which by adding water, large polymers can be broken down into smaller subunits.
Fats & Oils. Composed of C, H, and O but H:O ratio is much greater than 2:1. Lipids (2) Consists of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone.
Have long carbon chains that give them they hydrophobic (fatty) character and carboxylic acid groups that make them acidic. 3 dehydration reactions are needed to form 1 fat molecule.
Energy storage in animals. Release more energy per gram weight. Provide insulation and protection since they are a major component of fatty (adipose) tissue.
polar head and non-polar tail- found in cell membranes
2 chains of fatty acids . Found as protective coating,
Include cholesterol, the sex hormones: testosterone & estrogen
Composed primarily of C,H, O, & N but may also contain P, S. Polymers made off amino acids.
Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds through dehydration
What are the function of LIPIDS?
the major function of fats in the body.
What are three major types of lipids?
Triglycerides - most abundant, Phospholipids - major component of cell membrane, Sterols
What are triglycerides?
Made of 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol backbone
all single bonds C-H atoms
have 1 or more double bonds In the fatty acid chain
What is the main structure of phospholipids?
2 fatty acids plus phosphate
What is the main function of phospholipids?
1) Part of cell membrane-Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
Digestion starts in
The mouth with saliva releasing Amalase and teeth chewing
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Protein digestion starts in
Stomach with acid and pepsin
two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis.
A covalent amide bond formed between the carboxyl group of one AA and the amino group of another AA.
Protein Function: Cell Structure
Example: Collagen - Provides strength to cells
Protein Function: Regulation
Influence the behavior or abundance of enzymes in a given cellular process through interaction with other macromolecules
Protein Function: Storage
Proteins act as a biological reservoir for specific nutrients including metal ions
Actual AA sequence - Determines how protein will fold through specific AA interactions
Can be either an alpha helix (1 strand of AA) or a beta sheet (2 strands of AA) or a combo of the two
The functional 3D shape of a protein created by the folding of the secondary structures
Multiple polypeptides coalescing into a giant functional protein
Causes permanent unfolding and disruption of protein structure caused by changes in pH, heat, mechanical stress, etc
fatty acid-unsaturated pic
fatty acid-saturated pic
peptide bond pic
biuret color pic
benedict test pic
biuret test- purple
blue color to blue color
negative benedicts test
yellow to yellow
negative starch test
blue to purple color change
positive test for protein
yellow to black
positive test for starch
short-term energy source
long term energy
stores genetic info
elements in Lipids
C H O
Elements in Proteins
C H ON S
ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in Carbohydrates
condensation synthesis pic
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
Removes water from monomers to build polymers
Make up the cell membrane
2 fatty acid chains that are non polar
Head is polar
sugars and their polymers
--Energetic fuel source/storage
-- C, H, O in 1:2:1 ratio (CH2O )n
--names often end with -ose.
Glucose & fructose
glucose + fructose
glucose + glucose
glucose + galactose
sucrose (table sugar) pic
--forms spirals (helix) stabilized by hydrogen bonds
-form of starch
-Energy storage in ANIMALS
-Stored in liver and muscle Liver controls blood sugar level
-major component in plant cell walls (EX: wood, cotton)•
--Can't be digested by animalswithout the help of symbiotic microorganisms
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
R Side group on the amino acid
Makes each amino acid different
A chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
temperature, substrate concentration, and pH
factors that can affect the enzyme activity
Energy needed to get a reaction started
Region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits.