45 terms

US HISTORY UNIT 2 (1-45)

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Northwest Ordinance
Dealt with westward migration of Americans, set standards for state entry into the US, no slaves allowed
President Thomas Jefferson
Purchased the Louisiana territory from the French
Louisiana Purchase
Lands west of the Mississippi River, purchased by Jefferson from French
Lewis and Clark
commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana territory
Erie Canal
Connects the Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean, aids in growth of New York, makes trade cheaper/ easier
New York City
Once the capital, turned into a booming economic center, leading city in America at the time
Infrastructure
Roads began to be built west, barges on rivers, canals built
Monroe Doctrine
The US would prevent any European nation from trying to recapture any American countries
Industrial Revolution
transformation from purely agrarian society to a modern industrial/commercial economy.
Eli Whitney
developed the cotton gin/ interchangeable parts to the musket
Manifest Destiny
belief that Americans divinely favored to expand and settle the western part of North America
Temperance Movement
the movement put forth to drink less alcohol in the Americas.
Abolitionism
the movement to put an end to slavery. Several ideas: transport back to Africa, emancipate immediately, gain rights through legal and political means.
Public school
Horace Mann advocated for free public education for all children, essentially our model for today
Women's Suffrage
Women's right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
outspoken advocate for women's rights, organizer of Seneca Falls Conference, wrote Declaration of Sentiments
Seneca Falls Conference
attended by 300 woman in hopes of gaining equal rights to men, marks beginning of women's rights movement
Jacksonian Democracy
stronger presidency/executive branch and weaker Congress. Larger public participation, favored Manifest Destiny.
American Nationalism
love of the United States, "Era of Good Feelings," New national bank, westward expansion
Nat Turner
Black preacher believed mission on Earth was to free his people from slavery. Led a rebellion in Virginia, leads to stronger laws against black.
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading voice for temperance, women's equality, and emancipation. The Liberator
Frederick Douglass
former slave, newspaper called The North Star, most influential abolitionist
Grimke Sisters
spoke on evils of slavery, abolition and equality for women
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri/Maine to join union & keep balance of slave/free, 36'30' parallel
States' rights ideology
who held supreme power of the land, states/federal government, could states nullify federal laws
Nullification Crisis
tariffs were passed and southerners thought it was to hurt them, SC nullified the tariff, leads to a "compromise tariff" and SC stopped threatening to secede.
John C. Calhoun
led southern states in Nullification Crisis, showed split in the US between North/South
Sectionalism
North/Mid-west were industrial, South were agrarian, North budding populous, South stagnant
War with Mexico
war between Mexico/US, US wanted Texas, New Mexico, California, disagreed over border of the Rio Grande
Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot introduced legislation for "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in lands won in the Mexican American War." Passed the House failed in the Senate. Slavery still undecided.
Compromise of 1850
State of New Mexico would be carved by Texas, New Mexico voters decide on slavery/free, California = free, citizens must return escaped slaves, slave trade abolished in Washington DC but slavery allowed
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Virtually repealed Missouri Compromise/ Compromise of 1850, popular sovereignty to decide slavery, mass rush to fill Kansas to make slave/anti-slave, rise to Republican party
Popular Sovereignty
rule by the people
Dred Scott decision
said he should be a free man, court said no African American could be a citizen, gave slavery protection of Constitution.
John Brown's Raid
abolitionist, "chosen by God to end slavery," led raid in Virginia, failed and was executed
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln speech to preserve union, raised Northern spirits, famous speech
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln expresses sorrow, no boasting, urged reconstruction
Habeas Corpus
anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to see if prisoner is held legally, Lincoln suspends
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general, accepted surrender of Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general, defeated at Gettysburg, surrendered to end Civil War
"Stonewall" Jackson
Brilliant war tactician, won at first battle of Bull Run
William T. Sherman
Destroyed Atlanta, "March to the Sea," ended Confederates ability to fight
Jefferson Davis
US senator, President of Confederacy, appointed Robert E. Lee as General
Fort Sumter
Begins the Civil War, Lincoln calls for troops to respond to Confederacy
Antietam
First major battle of Civil War, deadliest one day battle, Lee's failure to win/ Union claim of victory leads too Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln
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