Dealt with westward migration of Americans, set standards for state entry into the US, no slaves allowed
President Thomas Jefferson
Purchased the Louisiana territory from the French
Lands west of the Mississippi River, purchased by Jefferson from French
Lewis and Clark
commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana territory
Connects the Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean, aids in growth of New York, makes trade cheaper/ easier
New York City
Once the capital, turned into a booming economic center, leading city in America at the time
Roads began to be built west, barges on rivers, canals built
The US would prevent any European nation from trying to recapture any American countries
transformation from purely agrarian society to a modern industrial/commercial economy.
developed the cotton gin/ interchangeable parts to the musket
belief that Americans divinely favored to expand and settle the western part of North America
the movement put forth to drink less alcohol in the Americas.
the movement to put an end to slavery. Several ideas: transport back to Africa, emancipate immediately, gain rights through legal and political means.
Horace Mann advocated for free public education for all children, essentially our model for today
Women's right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
outspoken advocate for women's rights, organizer of Seneca Falls Conference, wrote Declaration of Sentiments
Seneca Falls Conference
attended by 300 woman in hopes of gaining equal rights to men, marks beginning of women's rights movement
stronger presidency/executive branch and weaker Congress. Larger public participation, favored Manifest Destiny.
love of the United States, "Era of Good Feelings," New national bank, westward expansion
Black preacher believed mission on Earth was to free his people from slavery. Led a rebellion in Virginia, leads to stronger laws against black.
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading voice for temperance, women's equality, and emancipation. The Liberator
former slave, newspaper called The North Star, most influential abolitionist
spoke on evils of slavery, abolition and equality for women
Allowed Missouri/Maine to join union & keep balance of slave/free, 36'30' parallel
States' rights ideology
who held supreme power of the land, states/federal government, could states nullify federal laws
tariffs were passed and southerners thought it was to hurt them, SC nullified the tariff, leads to a "compromise tariff" and SC stopped threatening to secede.
John C. Calhoun
led southern states in Nullification Crisis, showed split in the US between North/South
North/Mid-west were industrial, South were agrarian, North budding populous, South stagnant
War with Mexico
war between Mexico/US, US wanted Texas, New Mexico, California, disagreed over border of the Rio Grande
Wilmot introduced legislation for "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in lands won in the Mexican American War." Passed the House failed in the Senate. Slavery still undecided.
Compromise of 1850
State of New Mexico would be carved by Texas, New Mexico voters decide on slavery/free, California = free, citizens must return escaped slaves, slave trade abolished in Washington DC but slavery allowed
Virtually repealed Missouri Compromise/ Compromise of 1850, popular sovereignty to decide slavery, mass rush to fill Kansas to make slave/anti-slave, rise to Republican party
rule by the people
Dred Scott decision
said he should be a free man, court said no African American could be a citizen, gave slavery protection of Constitution.
John Brown's Raid
abolitionist, "chosen by God to end slavery," led raid in Virginia, failed and was executed
Lincoln speech to preserve union, raised Northern spirits, famous speech
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln expresses sorrow, no boasting, urged reconstruction
anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to see if prisoner is held legally, Lincoln suspends
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general, accepted surrender of Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general, defeated at Gettysburg, surrendered to end Civil War
Brilliant war tactician, won at first battle of Bull Run
William T. Sherman
Destroyed Atlanta, "March to the Sea," ended Confederates ability to fight
US senator, President of Confederacy, appointed Robert E. Lee as General
Begins the Civil War, Lincoln calls for troops to respond to Confederacy
First major battle of Civil War, deadliest one day battle, Lee's failure to win/ Union claim of victory leads too Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln
deadliest battle of Civil War, beginning of end for Southerners,
Union gains control of Mississippi River, Confederate troops/supplies in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas cut off.
Burnt to the ground by General Sherman, marched through Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean, South knew they were defeated/North knew they had won
Lincoln uses executive powers to free all Confederate slaves, not the North, northern Blacks could now join army, not recognized by South but Union now focused on ending slavery
Enacted by Southerners after Civil War, regulated Black's rights, no voting, couldn't testify against whites, couldn't serve in militia or on juries.
Due process and Equal protection
Eased freed slaves transition from enslavement to freedom
Ku Klux Klan: associated with violence and intimidation towards blacks
college founded in Atlanta for blacks
3 part plan 10% plan: ratify 13th amendment, repudiate secession, 10% of voters had to take an oath of allegiance
Radical Republican Reconstruction
Wade-Davis Bill: ratify 13th amendment, 50% of southerners to swear against secession