Anthropology - Chapter 13
Terms in this set (14)
More than 1.2 billion people live on less than $1 a day.
A meal for two at a good restaurant in any American city can top $100.
Someone born in the late 1990s in Japan has a life expectancy of 81 years.
If you were born in those same years in Malawi or Mozambique, your life expectancy would be only 37 years.
A model of development that predicts that nonindustrial societies will move in the social and technological direction of industrialized nations
Proponents of modernization theory believed that poor nations could become wealthy by repeating the historical experience of the wealthy nations.
Human Needs Approach
In 1972 and 1973, the World Bank and other agencies began to focus on filling the basic needs of the rural poor.
Proponents of the Basic Human Needs approach argued that development had failed because it focused on large scale projects and technological change and paid insufficient attention to improving the lives of the very poor and increasing their capacity to contribute effectively to the economy.
A series of political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimal government regulation of the economy
Neoliberals have opposed state control of and government subsidies to industries and opposed all but minimal aid to impoverished individuals.
In this approach, wealthy nations demanded that poor nations restructure their economies.
They required poor nations to:
*sell off state-owned enterprises.
*reduce subsidies to local businesses and industries.
*reduce spending on education, health, and social programs.
*open their markets to free trade.
Businesses that own enterprises in more than one nation or seek the most profitable places to produce and market their goods and services regardless of national boundaries.
MNCs bring employment opportunities as well as goods and services to people who would not otherwise have them.
They also create major and controversial changes in the natural, economic, social, and cultural environments.
Generally a pejorative term for factories with working conditions that may include low wages, long hours, inadequate ventilation, and physical, mental, or sexual abuseIn spite of the terrible conditions in sweatshops, for many of the people who work there, the alternatives are worse.
Many workers are drawn from the ranks of the landless poor and the money they earn often marks the difference between food and a roof over one's head and hunger on the streets.
Protests and import restrictions aimed at sweatshops often backfire and harm the workers they are designed to help.
In 1950, only 16% of the total population of non-industrialized nations lived in large cities.
By 2000 this figure had reached 40% and by 2020, it is projected to reach 50%.
By 2015, eight of the world's ten largest cities are expected to be in poor nations and the average population of these cities will be over twenty million.
Graph of World's Population Growth
Poor nations hold most of the growth
China's One Child Policy
In 1979, the Chinese government introduced a radical population policy limiting families to a single child.
Families faced stiff financial penalties for additional children.
This policy was a key factor in reducing fertility in China from about five births per women thirty years ago to fewer than two today.
Today, an estimated 3% of the world's people live outside of the countries of their birth.
In 2005, the World Bank estimated that $232 billion was sent by migrants to people in their home countries.
By comparison, total U.S. humanitarian aid in 2005 was about $27 billion, almost 30% of which was spent in Iraq and Afghanistan.
International tourism has grown phenomenally in the last 50 years.
It is the third largest item in world trade and accounts for almost 10% of all world exports.
There are many varieties of tourism, most sought out by individuals from wealthier nations traveling to underdeveloped regions.
Although tourism can be "despoiling" and exploitative, for many cultures it has led to a revitalization of tradition.
Opening of institutes of cultural learning
Creating economic opportunities
Providing economic resources for the purchase of things such as instruments and costumes
Electronic Communication Technologies
Information technology may enhance local democracies.
Mobilizing protesters of fraudulent elections (Iran)
Challenging authoritarian governments that use censorship (China)
Organizing grassroots protests against government actions (Indonesia)
Fundraising and activism (U.S.)
Drawbacks of Electronic Communication Technologies
Information technologies encourage quick thoughts and actions that are not as deliberate and thoughtful.
They can be the source of a great deal of misinformation.
They can present information in very reductive simplicity without mediation to ascertain truth.
Through virtual communities it can divide interest groups and isolate them from each other.