104 terms

Sports Medicine Chapter 22

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Thoracic Cavity
The upper central area of the body, which is subdivided into two cavitites,, the left pleural cavity ( containing the left lung ) and the right pleural cavity ( containing the right lung )
Pleura
Serous membrane protecting the lungs and lining the internal surface of the thoracic cavity
True ribs
The first seven pairs of ribs, which connect directly to the sternum
False Ribs
The five pairs of lower ribs that connect to the seventh rib rather than to the sternum, or make no anterior connection
Nasal Septum
The partition between the two nasal cavities
Cili
Tiny lashlike processes of protoplasm
Olfactory Nerve
Nerve that supplies the nasal mucosa and provides a sense of smelkl
Sinus
A recessed cavity of hollow space, filled with air, around the nasal cavity
Pharynx
The throat
Epiglottis
Elastic cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea
Larynx
The voice box
Glottis
The space within the vocal cords of the larynx
Trachea
The windpipe
Bronchus
One of the two primary branches of the trachea
Bronchiole
One of the small subdivisions of a bronchus
Alveolar Sacs ( alveoli )
Air sacs found in the lung
Pleurisy
Inflammation of the lining of the lungs
Mediastinum
The intrapleural space separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind
Respiration
The physical and chemical process by which the body supplies the cells and tissues with oxygen and rids them of carbon dioxide
Internal Respiration
The exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the cells and the lymph surronding them; the oxidative process of energy cells
Cellular Respiration
The use of oxygen to release energy from the cell; also known as oxidation
Oxidation
The use of oxygen to release energy from the cell
Inspiration
Inhalation; the process of breathing airin
Expiration
Exhalation; the process of breathing air out
Spirometer
A device that measures the volume and flow of air during inspirtaion and expiration
Tidal Volume
The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath
Asthma
Airway obstruction caused by an inflammatory reaction to a stimulus
Exercise-induced asthma
Airway narrowing as a result of increased physical activity
Bronchoconstriction
Narrowing of the bronchioles
Rib Contusion
Bruising of the intercostal muscles by a direct blow to the ribs
Rib Fracture
A break in the bony structure of the thorax
Flail Chest
A fracture of three or more consercutive ribs on the same side of the chest
Paradoxical
The opposite of what is expected
Crepitus
A grating feeling produced by fractured bone ends rubbing together
Chest Contusion
Bruising over the central area of the chest as a result of a compressive blow to the chest
Myocardial Contusion
Bruising of the heart muscle
Cardiac Tamponade
A buildup of fluid in the pericadium
Sudden Death Syndrome
The rapid collapse and death of an otherwise healthy person; usually the result of an unknown congenital disorder
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Thickening of the cardiac muscle
Pneumthorax
Condition in which air enters the pleural space between the chest wall and lung
Sucking Chest Wound
An open wound in the chest that allows air to enter and become trapped in the pleural space
Pleural Space
The space between the lung and the chest wall
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
The rupture of a weakened area of the lung, which allows air to escape into the pleural space
Tension Pneumothorax
Condition in which air entrapped in the pleural space puts pressure on the lung and heart
Hemopneumothorax
An accumlation of blood in the pleural space
Edema
Swelling
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood
Rales
A crackling sound heard when breathing
Celiac Plexus
A cluster of nerves located in the upper middle region of the abdomen; also known as the solarr plexus
Hyperventilation
Breathing faster than required for proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Side stitches
Pain that occurs just under the rib cage during vigorous exercise
Abdominopelvic Cavity
The area from below the diaphragm to the pubic floor; there is no separation between the abdomen and the pelvis
Abdominal Cavity
The area of the body that contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and part of the large intestine
Pelvic Cavity
The area of the body containing the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, and the remainder of the large intestine.
Stomach
A major organ of digestion located in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity
Cardiac Sphincter
Circular muscle fibers around the cardiac end of the esophagus
Pyloric Sphincter
A valve that regulates that movement of food from the stomach to the duodenum
Duodenum
The first part of the small intestine
Jejunum
The sectiono of small intestine between the duodenum and the iluem
Ileum
The lower part of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the large intsetine
Absorption
The passage of a substance into body fluids and tissues
Villi
Hairlike projections
Bilirubin
One of two pigments that determines the color of bile; reddish in color
Hepatic Duct
The structure that carries bile from the liver to the common bile duct
Cystic Duct
The duct from the gallbladder to the common bile duct
Common Bile Duct
The passage that brings bile to the duodenum
Jaundice
A buildup of bilirubin and bile in the bloodstream, which tints skin and eyes a yellowish color
Glycogen
A polysaccharide formed and stored in the liver
Gallbladder
A small pearshaped organ that stores and concentrates bile
Colon
The large intestine
Cecum
A puch at the proximal end of the large intestine
Vermiform Appendix
A fingerlike projection, of unknown function, that protrudes into the abdominal cavity to the lower left of the cecum
Ascending Colon
The portion of the colon that travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity
Transverse Colon
The portion of the colon that veers left across the abdomen to the spleen
Descending Colon
The portion of the colon that travels down the left side of the abdominopelvic cavity
Sigmoid Colon
The S-shaped portion of the colon
Rectum
The portion of the colon that opens into anus
Retroperitoneal
Located behind the peritoneum
Renal lFascia
The tough fibrous tissue covering the kidney
Hilum
The indentation alond the medial border of the kidney
Renal Pelvis
The funnel shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter
Cortex
The outer portion of an organ
Medulla
The inner portion of an organ
Nephron
The functional unit of the kidney
Afferent Arteriole
Structure that takes blood from the renal artery to the Bowman's capsule
Bowman's Capsule
The double-walled capsule around the glomerulus of a nephron
Glomerulus
Capillaries inside the Bowman's capsule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
The twisted tubular branch off the Bowman's capsule
Loop of Henle
The proximal convoluted tubule that descends into the medulla
Distal Convolued Tubule
The tubular structure that ascends to the cortex from the loop of Henle
Collecting Tubule
The structure in the nephron that collects urine from the distal convoluted tubule
Efferent Arteriole
The structure that carries blood from the glomerulus
Ureters
The long narrow tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the bladder
Urninary Bladder
A muscullar, membrane-lined sac that holds urine
Urethra
The tube that takes urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
Urinary Meatus
The outside opening of the urethra
Epigastric Region
The upper region of the abddomen
Umbilical Area
The area located around the naval
Hypogastric Region
The lower region of the abdomen
Kidney Contusion
Bruising of the kidney
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Spleen
A large lymphatic organ that filters blood and helps activated the immune system
Kehr's sign
Pain that radiates to the left shoulder and down the left arm; results from a spleen injury or rupture
Hernia
A protrusion of abdominal tissue through a portion of the abdominal wall