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Hist 152 Midterm
Terms in this set (115)
What was the Renaissance?
- An effort to revive ancient learning in the 14th and 15th century
- Realism in art , political centralization, dominated by church
- It was the transition from the medieval to the modern world
Why was it based in Italy?
- Lots of trade with other countries made them an economic powerhouse (gateway)
- Leaders that rose to power highly supported and encouraged the Renaissance
What is humanism?
- Humanism is the scholarly study of Latin and Greek classics and the ancient church fathers → System of education like the liberal arts:makes your thinking free
- Studied the original sources to better educate themselves and promote culture and knowledge → Promoted the rebirth of ancient norms and values
- Scholarly study of Latin and Greek classics and the ancient church fathers for themselves to promote the rebirth of ancient norms
- Type of school system- Liberal arts education
grammar/language (Greek, Latin)
- Wanted to make well rounded people
- Belief that the study of the liberal arts makes you free in thinking and discernment
- All knowledge is to obtain wisdom and virtue
- Father of humanism
- He spent his life learning and understanding ancient documents
- Understood how it was that the Greeks and Romans who were culturally advanced and current society descended in barbarism and made a call for that to change
Goal: to revert to the thinking and arts of ancient greek/romans
- The purpose of his desire to gain knowledge was to obtain wisdom and virtue
- Wrote a book on the genealogy of the pagan gods
- Popularized the pagan gods
- Showed the pagan gods projected and symbolized virtues and how to act → Myths were a reaction to/commentary on human nature
- Starts the Florentine academy
Dedicated to the study of Plato (the republic)
The Republic: a thoght experiment on how the government should be run
- Moore used this to write Utopia → Example of Renaissance taking antiquity and using it as a model
- Studied Latin
- *Decided that the church needs to go back to the original text in order to discern what it means
- Martin Luther sets this into action
- Father of modern poli sci
- Believed that as a leader you should work for your good
- Believed that between being loved and being feared as a leader you should opt for fear: TOTALITARIANISM → Tyranny and order vs freedom and disorder (the end justifies the means)
What was its relationship to the Renaissance?
The renaissance was more secular and lay dominated with broader interests, along with more materials (i.e. more recovered manuscripts and technical skills)
Why is Machiavelli relevant 500 years after he lived?
- Wanted people to think about how fraud and brutality could unify a divided people and how it could be an effective means of leadership
- Totalitarianism (might makes right; only the strongest could create order)
- Idea of working for your own benefit
Art in the Renaissance
- Art and architecture was very advanced before the current era... they wanted to return to the advancements that they had already been achieved → they no longer knew how to achieve these things
- Cathedral of Florence ("dome") was the first renaissance building
- Continuity - pre-christian antiquity and pagan culture → common grace - God can use non believers for His purpose
- Art was very realistic during this time
What was the "monumental crisis" that caused the reformation?
- Church laity looking for more heartfelt, idealistic religious piety (see corruption in the R.C. church above)
- People could more easily obtain information which lead to heightened curiosity, confidence and criticism of the church
- Internal network of church officers began to fall apart and people began to realize that the church couldn't save them
How did humanism help launch the Reformation
Humanist studies created a climate favorable for religious and educational reform → Growth of schools, cheap production of paper, and the printing press all allow "normal" people knowledge previously unattainable
What was the role of Erasmus?
- Erasmus believed that disciplined study of the classics and the Bible was the best way to reform individuals and society
- Erasmus was the one who had the idea that the church need to reform and Luther was the one who carried this idea out → Christianity is not just about what you do inside of the church but what you do outside as well
- Writes "In praise of Folly" → pope dies and goes to hell, makes it clear to others that church needs to be reformed (changed the climate of the church)
How did Luther's political views promote the spread of Lutheranism?
- Because Luther's views were so countercultural and radical they spread very quickly
- People listened because they were so fed up with the Church
- He was Embraced by humanists
What were the peasants' main grievances in their revolt of 1525, according to their twelve articles? Are they religious, economic, or political?
- Evil in laws and an unjust demand of labor (under excessive taxation and overworked) Influenced by Luther's 95 Theses
- They were more economical than religious: they used religion to back points & they believed econ > religious because they did want to financially support the pope, be under excessive taxation, and didn't want to be overworked with little access to resources
- This was a violent revolt because they misinterpreted Luther's opinions (many died)
How was Calvin distinctive from Luther, and why is this significant?
- Motivated above all to make society Godly
- Elect leaders should live a manifestly God-pleasing life, Luther believed that all leaders should be respected even if they are being corrupt because they are the ordained leaders from God
- Reforming and reclaiming world for christ's purposes
- Sovereignty of God (God own's all of creation; "every square inch"); bring Christ into everything b/c this world is His
- Justification by Faith Alone and predestination central in theology
- Your relationship to God
- Free will
- Sola scriptura - scripture alone
- Sola gratia - grace alone
- Sola Fides - faith alone
What was St. Ignatius Loyola's role in reforming the church?
Lead the largest counter-reformation with the foundation of the jesuits → people can shape their own behavior, create a new religious self via disciplined study and regular practice
Goal: to teach Catholics to submit without question to higher church authority and discipline
- Lead to people thinking for themselves less
Why were Calvinists a threat to the French monarchy, and how did this affect France's experiences with the reformation?
- Served as a force for political decentralization
- Opposed totalitarian rule-- a.k.a. The absolutist French monarchy
- Henry ended up placing political peace above religious unity
What is Theodore Beza's significance?
He reminded kings of their duty to protect their subjects and lower magistrates → it's the obedience of the general populace which gives those in authority power to rule
- The right to resist tyranny
- Calvinist successor in Geneva
The Counter Reformation and Age of Religious Wars (Reformation of Catholic church and countering Calvin's ideas)
- Most Catholics knew that the church needed reform but the catholic church also needed to survive
French Wars of Religion: The Valois, Guise, and Bourbon
Monarchs, most rich/influential in France (under control by Catherine deMedici)
French Wars of Religion: St. Bartholomew's Massacre
- Aug. 24, 1572
- Attempt to wipe out Calvinism
(Catherine deMedici driving force behind this)
- Calvinist wanted to wipe out tyranny
- In 1589 Henry Navarre becomes Henry IV
- Huguenot, converts to Catholicism when crowned
- Peace of france worth saying mass (outwardly Cath., inwardly Calvinist)
- Disliked by both Catholics and Protestants b/c abandoned Calvinism to be a Catholic, but not really a Catholic because still a Protestant
Edict of Nantes
- Proclaims tolerance of Calvinism
- Lasts until assassinated
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
This was a war that originally began due to religious differences between the Protestants and the Catholics, however it became a war about wealth and power
The Age of Spain: Rise - the "Reconquest"
Spain rises as a reaction to Islam:
- Created to push out the Moors
1469, Castielle and Aragon (kingdoms) decide to blend together and push out Islam →
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
Church and State
- Same enemy: united against Islam
- Symboisis of threat: gov't listened to the church "or else" (feed you to the inquisition), church obeyed the monarchs
- Becomes an absolute monarchy with no tolerance for religious dissent
Spain becomes an empire
- Islam blocked access to the east...
- ...So they went west for spices (finding new places along the way)
- Also, they have the command to go forth and spread the gospel
The Habsburg Empire
- Charles V (grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella)
- Spain got $$$$$$$$$$ & uses wealth to make alliances which creates the Habsburg empire
The Age of Spain: Decline
- Easy access to wealth backfired (inflation, weak economy)
- Because they had $$$, they didn't do anything to encourage industry (money was all it had)
- Virtually all the money went to very few people (large divides between rich/poor, no middle class)
- Wars are expensive & questionable moral devices
- Basically, they overextended themselves
Spain & England: The Tudors
- 1485, Bosworth—battle that ended the wars of roses
- Henry Tudor defeats Richard the third & becomes Henry VII
Weak claim to throne
- Took throne by force
- Bloodline claim weak
Wars of the Roses (1461-1485)
- Very bloody war that lasted for almost thirty years
- Ended with the Tudors taking the kingdom by force
- Henry the Seventh now is king (blended the roses by marrying Elizabeth of York, Richard III's niece)
Henry VII marries son, Arthur to Catherine Aragon
- England get's security and $ & Spain gets England
- Arthur dies after 5 months on honeymoon
- Marries Catherine to Arthur's younger brother (gets papal bull to say it's not incest b/c Arthur and Catherine "never had sex")
Henry and Catherine
- Catherine is widowed (after Arthur's death) which leads to the kingdom being in danger
- Henry the eighth marries Catherine but wants a divorce → they have 1 child together (Mary) and their many miscarriages are seen as a sign of God's displeasure
- Henry badly wants divorce
- Pope was not going to say he was wrong about the "never had sex" thing
- Henry is in love with Anne Boleyn
- Catherine is getting old
Henry & Thomas Moore
Henry asked Moore to take his case to the church but Moore refused. Moore was eventually executed
What now, for Henry VIII?
- Parliament comes to Henry's rescue and together they form a limited partnership
- Act of restraint of appeals: No court cases settled outside of England (pope can't decide anything regarding England's court), Henry granted the divorce, Henry and Anne Bolyn have queen Elizabeth
- England essentially says King > Pope during Henry's case
Act of supremacy
- Henry declared supreme head of the church of England
- Servers relationship to Rome
So, what was in it for parliament?
- Power & wealth (land)
- Realized church needs reform
- W/o male heir (Catherine old and only Mary as offspring), worry about descending into civil war again
Comparing the German reformation w/ English Revolution
Luther and Calvin:
Start w/ theology, politics work themselves out later (messy and much fighting)
Start with politics and theology works itself out... hesitation gives people time to react, convert, and readjust
Mary and the Counter-Reformation
- She takes the throne after Edward dies
- Brings the church back to Rome
- Wipes out reformation, aligns with Rome, marries Phillip II of Spain (resulting in children that would be 3/4 spanish)
- Heresy punished by burning at the stake ("when the soul is dead people go to hell" hence the burning)
- Overall, Mary was completely insane
The Age of Elizabeth (1558-1603)
- She was 25 yo!!
- Successful reign of 45 years!
- Highly intelligent, women can rule, religious tolerance
- Nickname: The Virgin Queen
- When Phillip of Spain realized she wouldn't marry him, he launched an attack which ended in total disaster for Spain
- England to take Spain's place as world power
Designates a system in which governments heavily regulate trade and commerce in hope of increasing individual national wealth
How did mercantilism empower England's overseas empires?
- Mercantilism made things that were imported cheaper than things made in their own country, this lead to conflict
- Econ. well-being of home country = utmost concern
- Colonies exist only to provide market and natural resources for the homeland
List what you think are the top three reasons how small numbers of Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors were able to conquer the Aztec and Inca empires?
(3) Religion Culture
Disease brought by Europeans (smallpox) killing thousands of American natives. (No immunity to diseases that had been incubating in Europe)
Spaniards were heavily armored against physical damage. They introduced cavalry warfare to the Americas
(3) Religion Culture
Spaniards believed they had the right to get rich and serve God at the same time. Therefore, Spaniards believed that saving souls was worth destroying bodies. So when they witnessed the Aztec's sacrificing others, they looked at them as savages and needed to die
How did Europe's conquest of the Americas affect other parts of the world?
- African slave trade
- Lead to a world wide web of production based slave labor
- Not age of discovery- age of collision, there were already people living there
- Spanish were appalled by the Inca and Aztec religion bases upon human sacrifice → legitimized in their minds the first genocide
Europe at the "Age of Discovery"
Constantinople become Istanbul in 1453 when the Ottoman empire took it over, this allowed Muslims to cut off trade
(Europeans wanted spices, etc. & they have to find another trade route)
Worth more than gold and silver
- Applied to get funding from the French and English but he failed (got it when applied to Spanish)
Columbus: Hero or Villain?
- Was brave but also killed tons of people
- Very cruel... human sacrifice and the people who came on the expedition were often criminals given a second chance at freedom if participated in these dangerous voyages
- Takes Aztec's
- Was mistaken for a God (Quetzalcoatl) on the very same day that he arrived, which was the day the God was expected to return
- Uses the strategy of allying with indigenous people
Europeans brought lots of diseases along with them (such as smallpox) which killed thousands of natives →
What characterized the Ming dynasty?
First woodblock color printing
Opened silver mines and Grand Canal (serving as water supply)
What characterized the Qing dynasty?
Porcelain trading with Europeans
Increase in population
Gov. was quicker and less destructive.
What were the two dynasty's achievements?
- Very rapid increase in population due to increased food supply
- Longest period of good stable government
- Women were very restricted
- Confusion teachings
- Very strong emperor
- Government system itself was a Bureaucracy
- Isolationist (chinese not looking for anything from Europe, Europe wants a lot from the chinese - i.e. spices, silks, etc.)
What problems did Asia face
Foreign threats - mongols, Japanese and Chinese looking for more land
How did Asians perceive westerners
- Saw (Jesuit) missionaries as a curiosity, accepted them as scholars
- Drove out missionaries/Christians after Pope condemned the practice of ancestor worship
Why did some Asians allow some Europeans to stay?
- European nations trade w/ them (even tho very restrictive regarding foreigners)
- Foreigners only allowed in 1 port
- Isolationist (pg 544) Chinese have sense of superiority (nothing Europe can offer we don't have/can make)
- Foot binding (symbol of beauty)
- High class = small feet, unmarriable = large feet
- Housewives were enslaved and forced to obey the men of the household
- Thin horse market (concubines)
- Could have rights and power
- Lower class women were excluded from learned professions, but would help out with the family profession as an assistant to the husband/father
What is the "Tokugawa era" of Japan
The final period of traditional Japan rules
What did it achieve? How did they achieve it?
- It achieved peace, political stability and economic growth
- Legal codes regulate imperial court, religion, and the daimyo (nobles who were on the losing side)
Daimyo Hostage Situation
Daimyos' families forced to live in the palace and the daimyos forced to return to court every other year → turn the dissenters into courtiers (can't rile up the ppl against ruler b/c far away and the ruler can keep an eye on them)
- Society structured as castes; impossible to leave the caste you're born into
- Situations w/in castes can differ greatly: rich farmer can be better off than a poor townsperson
What characterizes the history of Vietnam during the period covered in this chapter?
- Imperialised by Tang dynasty of China (dictator)
- Everyone (Chinese and Japanese) were coming in and out of Vietnam
- Arabian trade
- Affected by Chinese diaspora (spread of people)
- Made Vietnamese culture good at pushing people out of their territory.
What characterizes the history of Korea during the period covered in this chapter?
- Victimized by China's Tang dynasty & Japan due to it's geography (right next to China)
- People moving in and out (not as much as in Vietnam though)
- Tributary dominated
- Were forced to pay taxes to Chinese and Japanese gov
Who were the Stuarts?
Stuarts came to power w/ James VI of Scotland and gained the throne after Elizabeth I died childless
Why did they fail to govern England effectively?
They essentially ignored Parliament (did not call it often), implemented arbitrary taxation and they were not puritan and the puritans were pushing for a radical reformation in England
Why is Oliver Cromwell a key figure?
- He is the first Puritan republic leader of England
- Victorious general in the civil war
- Established Calvinism → If your king is being unjust, you may overthrow them
-Couldn't deal with parliament → governed as a dictator (military)... people realized that Parliament gives the populace a voice
How was England's government different in 1690 than it was just five years earlier?
- Bill of Rights implemented which limited the powers of the monarchy (it held them accountable to parliament) and guaranteed civil liberties for the English privileged classes
- Tolerant of protestants (not the Rom. Catholics tho, or anyone who denied the Trinity)
How did the "Glorious Revolution" affect the relationship between England, France and the Netherlands?
Netherlands: policies favored more modern economic activity& b/c rulers are also rulers of Netherlands, Netherlands and England become BFFs
France: Redirected foreign policies towards direct opposition (opposing) France... Netherlands didn't get along with France
Compare and contrast Locke and Bossuet
Locke - English
Bossuet - French
Similarities: Both agree you need a ruler to maintain order in society
- Political Philosophy and religious tolerance
- Absolute monarchy vs. civil society b/c man born w/ right to freedom to preserve his life, liberty, and property from other men
- Absolute ruler can take away all of this w/o being held accountable
- "State of nature"
- Reparation and restraint
- Absolute Monarchy = inconsistent with civil society
- Citizens must submit to an authority (making no appeal)
- Gov't to preserve freedom of life/liberty/property
- King = Power
- Without power, king cannot do good nor repress evil.
- Protection of individual against authority should be their innocence
- Prince = Will of people
- Protection and strength are with God, so God is present within the king and prince & Romans 13... rulers set in authority over you by God, you are to obey that authority b/c God placed it there to keep order in society
Why did Louis XIV become an absolute monarch, and why did France go along with it?
- Before came to power, chief minister ruled with a heavy hand → nobles revolt
- To ensure nobles do not revolt again they did not appoint a chief minister (nobles can't claim the minister was bad, it's now them vs the king) and they gave the nobles the illusion of freedom (didn't intrude in social or political institutions and used physical setting of court [the palace of Versailles] to control nobles)
- They made it so the nobles feel privileged to get a moment with the king (helping him get dressed/going about daily routines) => so focused on their fight to get close to the king, don't have time for planning a revolt
Russia's political system development
Peter the Great:
- Was influenced by European artillery and armies & he wanted to westernize Russia
- Wanted to increase russian military power and protect the tsar from the boyars and streltsy (the unruly nobility and the greedy military).
Great Northern War (Battle with Sweden) Major step to westernizing his realm.
- Established Petersburg (1703) located in gulf of Finland. This served as a window for western ideas.
- Established Colleges, which were bureaus of people operating according to his written instructions instead of departments. headed by ministries.
Purpose: To sustain his personal authority and to fight corruption.
Prussia's political system development
- Was the result of Peace of Westphalia.
- Convention of Westminster: signed in 1756 & prevented entry of foreign troops into the Germanies
- Hohenzollern family: ruled Brandenburg since 1417, collected trades to form army, convinced junkers (german landlords) to be ruled by Hohenzollern in exchange to receive the right to demand obedience from serfs.
Best army in Europe
Army= Power and Unity
Son of WIlliam I
Upset Progmatic Sanction
Ignored progmatic sanction and seized Silesia
Why might the Seven Years' War be the most significant war of the century?
It was originally a war over religion but turned into a war about power... England goes into take-over-the-world mode and gains influence in a lot of places
James I (1603-1625)
- Questionable character
- England more and more dominated by puritans & being a flaming homosexual, did NOT sit well with the puritans
- Opposed to the puritans
- Parliament: Pym and Coke develop theory of ancient constitution and decrease power of the king and increase power of parliament gradually (went further: take all power from king)
- Makes concessions to parliament: generally conceded power to parliament, needed $$$, so goes to parliament - parliament gives $$$ on condition that he does this
Example: installing parliament's guy in disputed election instead of his guy
Charles II (1625-1649)
Henrietta Marie, Wife = sister to Loius XIII (French)
- She was very smart, very catholic
- The French monarchy = absolutist → English monarch has far too little power
- Her and Charles quarrel w/ parliament
Parliament on the attack
- "Popery" - Henrietta has own Cath court -> parliament not a fan
- Taxation w/o representation (forced loan) levied on the people
- Petition of right made to stop king
- Founded on the ancient constitution
- Should not be compelled to give taxes not set by common consent in parliament
- Charles signs and parliament gives $$$
Charles devises new ways to get tax money w/o going thru parliament...
- Doesn't call parliament for 11 yrs ("11 years of tyranny")
- Ship money: In times of way, have right to declare tax in order to build ships, typically only from coastal cities but he called ship money in a time of peace and from all cities
John Hampton takes king to court
- Beginning to separate the king from the institution
- Handpicked jury by charles rules against him
- Taxation w/o representation = bad
The Civil War and Interregnum (1642-1660)
- Charles out of control and abuses power so Scotland has revolution and Catholicism brought back
- Charles decides church needs to be unified (did this in England) so he marches to Scotland
- Scots fight back, Charles needs $$$ so parliament argues it (not Charles) should be in charge of troops
- Charles vs Parliament: parliament has its own force to combat Charles → Charles flees north
Cromwell takes over (not as king), turns into military dictator
- He's violent towards Ireland
- He forces people to go to church & tries to legislate morality
- 1657, Parliament says they'll make him king (if king, has to answer to Parliament, gives them control over the situation [know how to deal with kings]; Cromwell declines)
Restoration and The "Glorious Revolution"
- James II is Charles II's bro who ruins everything
- Openly devout catholic and tries to make England catholic again (arrests ppl w/o trial, becoming tyrant)
- Parliament fed up → asks William and Mary (Dutch king and queen) if they want to rule England too (good bloodline claim)
- Bloodless revolution (really invasion by invitation)
William/Mary signed a deal (Bill of Rights)
- England+Scotland+Ireland now allies w/ dutch (Frenchies not friends anymore)
- They needed a king, so they went w/ Charles I's son, Charles II
- The French want to rule as an absolute monarch
- Very cautious when coming to throne
- Father had to flee
- Gets bolder, allies with French (does Loius XIV's bidding and attacks Netherlands)
What does Priscilla Wakefield's demand say about women's work, then and now?
GOAL → Women receive equal wages from doing equal work
- Women only held occupations that paid poorly
- Excluded from work that required "man strength"
- Men are not more genuine than women
- Women have the same capacity (becoming a lawyer, etc.)
Why was Britain the first industrial nation?
- It was the first single largest free-trade area in Europe
- They had a network of free roads and waterways with no tolls
- They also had free deposits of coal and iron ore as well as a stable government
SO WHAT? → They were benefited from the dutch. This lead to the creation of life insurance, banking and paper money
Early Industrial Revolution — a "Watershed"
Watershed- a division in history
Examples from industrial revolution:
- Transition of people moving to the cities from rural areas
- Mass production
- Shift in control from individual to company
- Economy and social reform
Changes of industrial revolution upset structures of old regime → two new classes (what are they)
They owned the factories
- Trade and industry and landowners
- Factory owners
- Goal was to make money which resulted in exploiting their employees
The people who worked in the factories
- Factory workers
- Working class & not landowning
LOWEST SOCIAL CLASS
Women/Families Pre-Industrial Societies
- Women are working in homes
- Essentially servants to the family (bring men food in the fields)
- Another mouth to feed
- At 12/13 yrs would go and work for money to put towards marriage... typically servant in wealthy household (someone who can afford to feed them)
Women/Families Industrial Societies
- Women make less money than men
- Only offered jobs that paid less because they considered incapable
- Women work in industry
- Women and children seen as commodities (if die in coal mine, can simply replace them with the next person begging to make wages to live)
- Paid less b/c could, dangerous work places b/c people were dispensable
Early Industry - why was Britain first?
- Extensive transportation networks
- Demand for Trade
- Lots of iron and coal
- Parliament had lots of power
- Very stable government that allowed for land ownership
- Embraced John Locke's ideas of everyone has the right to life liberty and pursuit of property
- Sound system of banking which came as a result of the Dutch merger
Having a lot of things meant something to the English and the fact the government couldn't come take your stuff whenever they wanted was a very big deal
The Relation to Slavery
Slavery put capital into England → allowed for land ownership→ increased food production → decreased cost of food → increased population → quality of life → people could afford to buy the things being made in factories
What defined and characterized the Ottoman Empire?
- Militaristic, highly bureaucratic (like Prussia)
- Sharia law (religious law) → the law comes from God → theocracy interpreted by kalif (pg 612) & Sultan was under the kalif
- Suleyman: HE'S SO IMPORTANT - goal was to make Europe Islamic (ottoman empire reaches peak under Suleyman)
- Turkish Spiritual leaders
- Shi'ite, the minority (just like the Qing Dynasty)
- Legitimize their Shi'ite rule by putting Sunni Ulamas in their gov't
Who were the Mughals?
Ended the political fragmentation of India
Who was Akbar?
Greatest Indian Ruler
What characterized their rule?
- impressive military strength and religious toleration
- Stopped taxing non-Muslims
- Falls because they invite the English to come solve their financial problems
Shi'ite and Sunni split
Religious split between Sunni and Shi'ite over who should should be the head of the religion, a descendant of Muhammad (Shi'ite) or just a prophet (Sunni).
Shi'ite confined themselves to central Asia. Isolated themselves from the rest of the Muslim world
How, why, and where did Islam spread in southeast Asia?
Spread through traders, not conquest
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