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Mid Term Chapter 9
Terms in this set (25)
What are two interesting and special properties of water as it exists on earth?
temperatures and pressure on earth lets water exist in all three of its states
When is water LESS dense?
when its in a solid state
What does less density when water is solid cause?
causes ice to float and doesn't sink to the bottom of an ocean or lake, killing or moving life away when it freezes
How are rocky planets formed?
By a process called accretion
What is accretion?
a process where rocky space debris collides and forms increasingly larger masses with increasingly more gravitation that brings more space debris to the rocky planet
what is a hydrate?
the water that exists in rocks
How does water escape from rock?
when space debris and hydrates collide to form molten
What happens when water escapes from rock?
it enters the atmosphere as H2O which can precipitate down to earth delivering liquid water to it's surface
How does NEW water get on Earth today?
From space debris, as water that is either frozen on its surface and/or as a hydrate within the debris itself
Of all water on Earth, where is most of it located?
about 99.5% of it is in rocks that makeup the earth
Of all the freshwater on Earth, where is the majority of it locked up?
about 99.4% of it is locked up in the cryosphere, as glacial ice
What does the location of most freshwater on Earth imply?
Liquid freshwater is a very limited resource on Earth
How does the downwelling of water happen in cold places such as Antarctica?
In Antarctica, when ice freezes, the way that molecules arrange themselves in the process of solidifying means that dissolved salts are pushed out of the ice that it forms which dumps salts into the surrounding liquid water making it more dense. This dense water sinks and the saltiest water is 4 degrees C, sinks to the VERY bottom of the deepest ocean basins and cruises around as deep ocean currents
How does downwelling in Antarctica compare with downwelling in warmer places such as along the east coast of the US, moving from Florida northward?
warm equatorial water that is cruising clockwise and UP from the equator, along the coast of Florida, is continually evaporating
Why is the warm equatorial water evaporating?
water evaporates, the vapor goes into the atmosphere but the salts stay behind in the liquid ocean. This means that the liquid water in the Gulf Stream is getting saltier and saltier but also denser and denser
What happens to the dense water in the gulf stream?
as it makes its way northward, it begins to sink and this contributes globally to whats called an "ocean conveyor belt" which moves surface water to depth and all driven by density and heat
What is upwelling?
a process where colder, nutrient-rich water is brought up from depths as surface winds blow surface water away from a coastline
What makes waves?
Specifically, what three variables produce waves?
1) the speed of the wind 2) the duration or consistency by which wind blows 3) the surface area over which wind blows
How are the largest waves made?
maximizing the 3 variables that produce waves
Why are ocean waves far larger than lake waves?
the surface of lakes are much smaller
How does the bending and subsequent breaking of waves explain why water and sand are transported down a coastline?
as waves approach a shoreline they erode away the headlands and then waves bend into bays or coves. as they do, then they wash up on beaches at an angle but then slide back into the ocean following this initial angle. This constant angles moving in and out of breaking waves on a beach ends up transporting water DOWN a beach and thus ALSO ends up transporting the sand
What causes the most damage from hurricanes along coastlines?
high tide combined with waves when a hurricane moves ashore is responsible for the most amount of coastal damage. When you add sea level rise to the picture, then it only gets more challenging
why does the frequency of high intensity storms increase when the average annual temp of the planet increases?
if the frequency of storms plots like a bell curve along an x-axis corresponding to temp and storm intensity, then as the bell curve shifts to the right, then the frequency of intense storms ALSO increases
How is it that a 100 year storm now becomes a 10 year storm or an annual storm?
This means that the rare 100 year storm can now become more frequent
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