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Sociology Test #2
Terms in this set (60)
the relationship by which two or more variables change together. Does not necessarily prove the existence of a cause and effect relationship.
an apparent, although false, association between two or more variables caused by some other variable.
Criteria of a cause and effect relationship
1. There is an empirical correlation between the cause and affect.
2. The cause must precede the effect in time.
3. There is not a third variable that causes both variables in question and completely explains the correlation between them.
Example: your height and your siblings height correlation disappears when you add your parents height.
Operationalizing a variable
simply means measuring a variable. example: one may use the official crime rate, to measure the trend in crime.
refers to the quality of consistent measurement. Example: visually measuring the size of a classroom, one person may say it is a different size than another.
refers to whether the measure represents the concept the researcher has intended to measure. Ex: use the GNP to measure the cultural development of a country.
a subset of units or cases from the population. Example: randomly select 2000 registered voters from the population of registered voters. (the sample is the 2000 registered voters; the population is all the registered voters; and each voter is a unit.)
Does the sample represent the population?
Example: draw a sample of the BU students who attend 8:30 classes on a Monday, Is that representative of all or even most of Brandon University students?
How large should the sample size be?
N= the number of cases in each sample
MOE= margin of error expressed as a %
a survey is a research method, in which subjects respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview.
respondents read the instructions, and fill in the answers themselves,
an interview is a series of questions a researcher administers personally to respondents.
wording and sequence or order of the questions is fixed.
without fixed questionnaire
it is a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions, Experimental research is explanatory. It examines the effect of a stimulus or treatment on the outcome of a dependent variable. Example: an experiment may examine the effect an exercise program on fitness. Exercise program is the stimulus and the level of fitness is the outcome.
the subjects who are aware of the presence of the researchers may alter their behaviour. With respect to the fitness example, subjects may be aware that they are being observed and try to improve their fitness regardless of wether they have received treatment or not. Example: Zimbardo experiment inmates and guard roles
Fact gathering, and fact explaining enterprise governed by strict rules.
Facts are observable, verifiable, raw data, discovered through the senses. Example: homocide cases not being reported may distort crime statistics.
A theory is a systematic explanation of facts, while sociologists can agree that the # of criminal offences is declining over the last decade, they may not agree as to why. Some may say it is because of the aging Canadian population, some link it to the well being of the economy.
A set of principles and definitions about how societies operate & how people are related to one another.
Falsifiability of Research
According to Jack Gibbs, good sociological theories must be falsifiable, There must be conditions under which theory is proven wrong.
Based on his notion of falsifiability Karl Popper said that Darwinism is not a testable scientific theory, but a metaphysical research program.
Procedures to formulate research questions to collect data to organize and analyze the data, and to interpret the results.
Science as a form of truth
Different types of truth (Macionis & Gerber)
1) Ideal truth an ideal truth is an idea or belief based on faith
2) Experts opinion
3) Truth by consensus
4) Truth by experience ( death for example is a concept most people have observed and therefore except)
Sociological Truth Is Relative
How many people died in the terrorist attack on sept 11? estimated 25,000 then adjusted to 6000, then 3000. there was a high number of deaths in the year 2006 on average 6000 americans due to various causes, is that the same as the 3000 on sept 11?
What is science?
Science is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation. Scientific knowledge rests on empirical evidence/info we can verify with our senses.
Scientific Inquiry - According to Kevin R. Hoover
1) the identification of the variables to be studied example: if one is interested of the effects of exercise on health, the variables in question are "exercise" & "health"
2) Hypothesis about the relation of one variable to another, or to a situation. Example: the hypothesis here suggests that exercise has a + affect on health
- the hypothesis clearly states the relationship between two variables
3) A reality test where the hypothetical relationship is measured against a result
- may get participants and randomly assign them to different groups, comparing people who exercise and people who don't.
4) An evaluation: in which the measured relationship is compared with the original hypothesis & generalizations are made.
5) Suggestions about theoretical significance to the findings, factors involved in the test, that may have distorted the results.
The limitations of science
what is known today, might be different in the future.
Common sense vs. Scientific Evidence
refers to the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
Non material culture
refers to the ideas created by members of society everything from art to the Canadian constitution
by contrast, refers to the physical things created by members of society, everything from beavertail doughnuts, to satellites in space.
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life. Only humans rely on culture rather than on instinct to create a way of life and to ensure survival.
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture.
Culture Shock as a Two-way process
1) it is something that the traveller experiences when encountering people whose way of life is unfamiliar.
2) It is also how the traveller inflicts on others by acting in ways that might offend them.
a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
states that people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautiful, and that serve as broad guidelines for social living. Values are broad principles that support beliefs.
a specific statement that people hold to be true.
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behaviour of its members.
stating what we should not do (not have sex with children)
state what we should do
William Graham Sumner (Mores)
Mores are norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance. -- right and wrong.
norms for routine or casual interaction - right and rude.
attempts by others to regulate peoples thoughts and behaviour.
social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms.
actual social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations. - nobody lives up to real standards all of the time.
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings.
to refer to cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite.
cultural patterns that are widespread throughout society
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society's population.
Social policy designed to encourage ethnic or cultural heterogeneity.
The dominance of Europeans cultural patterns.
4 Basic positions on multiculturalism
1) captures an accurate picture of our past (how we colonized aboriginal people)
2) we can come to terms with our diversity
3) a way to strengthen the academic achievement of children of immigrants.
4) learn to live in a world that is increasingly interdependent
refers to cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society.
the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system.
Cultural Change is set in motion in 3 ways
1) Invention (telephone, airplane)
2) Discovery - understanding something that was not understood before
3) Diffusion - the spread of cultural traits from one society to another.
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of ones own.
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards.
The Idea Of A Global Culture
1) Global Economy - the flow of goods
2) Global Communications - Flow of info
3) Global migration - the flow of people
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