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G9 Unit 1.1 Early Peoples and River Valley Civilizations
Terms in this set (85)
Nile River Valley
Cradle of Egyptian Civilization. Annual Floods bring Silt
Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Cradle of Civilization
Indus Reiver Valley
Site ofthe cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
Huang he River Valley
Also known as Yellow River. Home of Shang Dynasty
the movement of people to a new area
Bering land bridge
a narrow strip of land that connected Alaska and Russia allowing early humans to cross into the new world
A culture that moves from place to place
A culture that survives by hunting animals herds while gathering seasonal fruits, tubers and nuts
Time period where small nomadic human tribes were limited to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle
The belief that spirits and forces that existed in animals, objects, dreams. Nature religions
The Neolithic Revolution
The transition from nomadic life to settled farming.
Began through the domestication of plants and animals leading to permament settlements ~10,000 BCE
Humans learn to plant seeds and harvest crops (farming) also known as agriculture
farming, planting, and harvesting crops. May refer to animal husbandry (taking care of animals to eat) as well
having enough food so not everyone needs to produce food. Necessary for advanced culture/civilization
A food staple is a food that makes up the dominant part of a population's diet. Grains, such as corn, wheat, and rice, are the world's most popular food crops. In fact, these crops are often the basis for food staples.
Domestication of Animals
To raise animals in a controlled way that makes them better suited for humans
small villages and humans remaining in one place due to the domestication of plants and animals and the food surplus it brought
Specialization of labor
Different people take on different jobs, becoming more skilled. Possible only when there is a food surplus. leads to technological progress and development
The development of mixing metals and making them stronger or learning better ways to use and pruduce metals
Based on agriculture (most people are involved with food production) with limited crafts and barter or trade. May include currency.
Growing just enough to survive with a small surplus for trading
trade, exchanging goods or services for other goods or services
Bantu/ Bantu Migrations
Ethnic Group/culture in Africa. migrated to other parts of Africa when they exhausted their food supply. Spread language and knowloedge of agriculture and iron-working throughout Africa
The spread of ideas from one culture to another
a complex, highly organized social order
A valley with a river running through it. Often has annual floods depositing rich, fertile silt-soil on the surrounding banks. Acted as the cradles of civilization.
Urban settlements with concentrated populations and advanced economies. often located near rivers and a characteristic of civilization
A central government is a system of leadership, law and coordination and a characteristic of civilization
religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established, Often includes a hierarchy of priests and a characteristic of civilization
complex social organizations
People were ranked according to their job, ownership of property, bloodline/birth or wealth and a characteristic of civilization
a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority and a characteristic of civilization
The art and science of designing buildings. Engineering and advanced construction.
A building or project that is often for
the benefit of all the city's/civilization's people. Walls, irrigation, flood control etc
System of Writing/Written Language
Shows advanced civilization, allows records to be kept and knowledge passed to later generations (hieroglyphic, oracle bones, and cuneiform)
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler or dominant culture
A political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages
A man-made waterway. Can be used for irrigation, flood control or to connect rivers for trade
Creating a means of watering plants to increase the production of crops.
god-kings of ancient Egypt
early form of paper made of reeds. Created by the Egyptians but used by many Mediterranean Civilizations
A means of knowing the days and seasons. Allowed accurate planting/harvesting of crops
Land of Mesopotamia and includes the Nile River Delta. Annual floods and fertile soil. Birthplace of civilizations
The earliest known form of writing found in Sumeria (Mesopotamia)
Farming tool with blades fixed in a frame. Pulled by human, animal, or mechanical power and used for cutting furrows in the soil and turning it over. Increases agricultural production
large temples at the senter of Mesopotamian cities.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
An EPIC of the adventures of the Sumerian king of Uruk Gilgamesh. One of the earliest known literary works known. Can teach us about society in history
Mesopotamian Empire from 1895 BCE-539 BCE. Known for its law code
The Code of Hammurabi
First known written Law Code. 282 laws, written by scribes on 12 tablets. A guide to living. Created by King Hammurabi of Babylon. Based on an "Eye for an Eye"
Ancient people living in what is now Israel and Palestine, they established the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and their scriptures and traditions form the basis of the Jewish religion (Judaiism) Also have their own language of Hebrew
A religion that believes in only ONE God. Judaism was the first. Christianity, Islam and Sikhism are others.
A central figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Entered a Covenant with God--> Hebrews/Jewish people with believe in only 1 God and they will become a Chosen People of God
A central figure to Judaism and historical law-giver. Gave the 10 Commandments, a Jewish and later Christian guide to living. Also responsible for the idea of Palestine as a Promised Land for the Jewish people
The Holy Text of Judaism. Contains Genesis, Exodus and other parts of Jewish History as well as the 10 Commandments
Frist Monotheistic Religion founded by the Hewbrews. Abraham is considered the founder. Later followers are known as the Jewish people.
A Jewish scholar or teacher, especially one who studies or teaches Jewish law and the Torah
A jewish temple/ holy place. Visited most often on Fridays and Saturdays
The exile/forced migration of the Jewish people out of their homeland in Palestine by the Romans after a failed rebellion. Leads to a scattering or spreading of Jewish communities throughout Europe. 70 CE - 500CE
"The Carriers of Civilization" invented sails and sturdy boats. Built a trading empire in Mediterranean Sea spreading sailing, technology, and their alphabet
When geographic features (mountains, forests, oceans deserts) limit contact between cultures and civilizations.
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Cities of the Indus River Valley Civilization. Had organized grid-like streets, organizaed governments, and indoor plumbing keeping their cities clean. developed cotton cultivation
a soft white fibrous substance that surrounds the seeds of a plant and is used as textile fiber and thread for sewing. Cotton can be woven into threads/textiles and is a trade good
The belief that one's own culture is superior to all others
The Middle Kingdom
Historical Chinese belief that China is the Center of civilization on earth and most other people are barbarians. In part due to isolation. Has been Chinas name for itself.
1650s BCE - 1050 BCE Developed in Huang He River Valley. Kings had priestly roles speaking to heaven via orcale bones. developed bronze casting and terracing
Oracle Bones and Shells
Shang Dynasty used to commune with gods and ancestors. Proof of early forms of Chinese written language and religion.
rice cultivation (farming)
Staple crop of China and India. Rice farming is very labor intensive and requires large amouts of water.
Cutting "steps" in a hill or mountainside to create more farmland. Practiced in China, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia as well as elsewhere.
Using a mold of an object and pouring molten metal into the mold. Allows many copies can be made more quickly than forging or carving with great detail
Bronze (mixture of copper and tin) molds to make vessels, tools and weapons,
Study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains
Carefully digging up and examining bones, burial mounds, settlement remains, etc.
Study of man, especially of the variety, physical & cultural characteristics, distribution, customs, social relationships, etc. of mankind: often restricted to the study of the institutions, myths, etc. of non-literate peoples. Studying primates or early hominids (humans)
Studying pre-civilization cultures or lost tribes
The science of dealing with the earth's surface features and the climate, vegetation, population, etc. of it's countries, and other divisions the topographical features of a region
Someone who studies the topography of the land as well as human interaction with it.
Science of human society & of social relations, organization & change. Specifically, the study of beliefs, values, etc. of societal groups & of the processes governing social phenomena
Studying social class, culture, symbols
the science of dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes; science of human and animal behavior
the science of political institutions or of the principles, organization and methods of government. Public policy, Voting trends, Policy decisions and effects
the science of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods & services. Supply and Demand, Scarcity, Factors of Production (land, labor, captial, and entrenpreneurship)
Definition: A document, speech, or other sort of evidence written, created, or otherwise produced during the time period under study. It is the original work of a person who lived during the time period—it tells you a person's ideas in his or her own words, and offers an inside view of a particular event
Definition: Provides interpretation or analysis of primary sources. It was NOT written during the time period under study. It includes the author's opinion about what really happened, based on their analysis and interpretation of primary historical evidence.
Encyclopedias, documentaries, literary criticism, a book, magazine or news article about a historical event (about WW2 written in 2002), political commentary analyzing an election or politician, textbooks
Written: autobiography, diary, official records (birth certificate), poetry, raw data, grocery list
Visual: photographs, artwork, news film footage, doodles
Audio: music, speeches, interview, voice mail
Artifacts: pottery, clothing, jewelry, furniture, trophies, concert tickets, menus
Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
The action of cultivating land, or the state of being cultivated (farming)
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