Sociology of gender exam 1
Terms in this set (72)
What are the highest-ranking nations in gender equality?
Scandinavian & European nations
What effect did the rise of capitalism have on understandings of sex and gender?
New divisions of labor arose that segregated men and women's work, and the idea of fundamental gender differences developed
What does the term "mestiza" refer to?
A person who lives with multiple, competing, conflicting, and interconnected identities and is able to challenge identity boundaries
What is an "intersexual"?
An individual whose sex is ambiguous
According to Halperin and Warner, what does the umbrella term "transgender" refer to?
All people who reject normative gender and sexual identities and challenge sexual and gender logics
What is a "hijra"?
A group of people in India who do not have male external genitalia and view themselves as "male minus maleness"
What does historical and cross-cultural research demonstrate about sex and gender?
That sex and gender are not static
Why is there such a high gender disparity in mortality rates in environmental disasters?
a)Women are taught fewer survival skills, such as swimming and tree climbing.
b)Taking responsibility for others, especially children, prevented women from escaping floods.
c)Female clothing can inhibit movement
d)The division of labor puts women in more dangerous places.
**all of the above
What is intersectional analysis?
A form of analysis that looks at the crosscutting inequalities that complicate gendered differences, such as race ethnicity, class, sexuality, and nation
What was the first wave of the American women's movement?
The movement that began in the 19th century and focused on suffrage
What commonality do the first and second waves of the American women's movement share?
They were both rooted in movements against racism.
Sociologists use the term ___________ to describe the ways that people seek to change their social circumstances, to dismantle existing ways of thinking and acting, and to create new ideas and new social institutions.
What does historian Thomas Laqueur's research demonstrate about the history of views of sexed bodies?
That ideas and beliefs about men and women shaped the ways people understood sexual anatomy and its function
What was the focus of the transnational feminist platform at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing?
Women and poverty
Education and training
Violence against women
**all of the above
_________ is the media version of womanhood that is "organized, financed, and supervised by men."
What does the term "hegemonic masculinity" refer to?
The culturally exalted form of masculinity that is linked to institutional power
When did the labels "homosexual" and "heterosexual" take hold?
In the late 19th century
Which of the following is not an assumption of the "standard story" of sex, gender, and sexuality?
Sex is just as much of a construct as gender.
Why is biological sex difficult to test or measure?
a)chromosomally there are five variations of sexes.
b)Differences in embryonic development can result in a variety of different formations of genitalia.
c)In many cases biological makeup is far from clear, far from either simply male or female
**all of the above
______________________ is a feminism based on networks of women in the global South who are critical of the hegemony of the North and of its capitalist economies and militaristic policies.
How does the interactionist approach understand gender?
It sees gender as a social practice that people produce or "do" in specific contexts and situations.
________________ involves internalizing social norms as expectations about how to feel, think, and behave in the social roles that we inhabit.
The vignette "Tom, Betsy, and the Telephone" shows
How we act to reproduce the institution that shapes us
How gender is a part of our psychological makeup
How resistance emerges and leads to change in the institution of gender
** all of the above
While _________________ emphasizes a more passive process of learning social rules and learning to conform to these rules, ____________________focuses on how people in interaction interpret and respond to the expectations and meaning of other participants in the interaction.
socialization theory; interactionist theory
What is the focus of structuralist theories of gender?
The way that gender inequalities are produced and maintained at the level of institutions, organizations, and social structures
______________________ is the view that gender is a fixed biological or psychological trait that does not vary among individuals or over time.
Trayvon Martin, a 17 years old African American boy, was killed by a police officer Gorge Zimmerman who thought of him as "suspicious" and "up to no good."
false, Zimmerman was not a police officer. He was a captain with the neighborhood watch program in the area.
How does the "lens of androcentrism" lead one to view the world?
It makes everything male appear to be the neutral norm, the universally human standard.
How do power, prestige, and wealth affect gender difference?
The more power, prestige, and wealth are at stake, the more stratified and unequal the gender difference.
How did functionalist theory in sociology support the status quo?
It supported the idea that complementary sex roles in families and in society are socially required.
The lens of ________ refers to the ways that diverse aspects of human experience are culturally linked to sex differences. Cultural items, emotions, social positions, and needs are either male or female.
What does it mean to say that gender is a social institution?
That gender is a process by which we distribute resources, care for people, and identify and legitimate rulers
"Doing gender" theory views gender as an accomplishment rather than something affixed at birth or learned through socialization.
How is gender essentialism flawed?
It doesn't account for all bodies, and it is akin to stereotyping.
________ refers to the ways in which women and men are sorted into jobs and occupations in the labor force as well as to who is responsible for unpaid work.
Gendered division of labor
What does it mean when Joan Acker says that organizational structures are gendered?
That organizational spaces, symbols, identities, and rules create and sustain gender inequalities
_________ refers to the social relations that grow from belonging to a tiny minority amid a large majority.
According to West and Zimmerman (1987), ___________ is our status as males or females and ________ refers to the performance, the ways people accomplish being a man or a woman, a boy or girl.
sex category; gender
Rosabeth Moss Kanter in her book Mend and Women of the Corporation (1978) claimed that organizational structures were gender neutral.
anyone in same low status position would behave and be treated similar
According to Laumann et al.'s study, how do different levels of gender equality correlate to sexual satisfaction?
In nations in where women have relatively more equality with men, sexual satisfaction is relatively high for both men and women.
According to our textbook, which of the following statements about the pornography industry is true?
It totals $13.3 billion in sales each year, which is more than the profits of the NBA, the NFL, and MLB combined.
The porn industry is bigger than ABC, NBC, and CBS combined.
Worldwide, the pornography industry is worth close to $60 billion.
In the LA area 11,000 hard-core pornographic movies are produced annually
According to Greenfield's study (1997), what percentage of all rapes in the United States are inter-racial, which means the perpetrator and the victim are of the different racial groups?
Approximately 10 percent
Intra-racial: of the same race
inter-racial: diff race
Which of the followings is an example of heterosexism?
Assuming all sexually active women use birth control
Assuming that all unmarried people are single
Assuming that everyone that you meet is heterosexual
Using official forms that allow only for designation as married or single
** all above
What is the underlying issue of sex trafficking that makes it so difficult to protect sex workers and inhibit the industry?
The global capitalist economy that forces some people to become sex workers and move to nations where restrictive immigration laws prevent them from obtaining other kinds of work.
According to the 2006 report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, what percentage of those who are trafficked as sex workers are women and girls?
About 80 percent
What do The Vagina Monologues and Little Sister demonstrate?
That popular culture can be used to combat oppressive images of sexuality
What is the effect of abstinence-only sex education programs?
There is no evidence that they work; rather, they spread misinformation and their participants have the same rates of sexually transmitted diseases.
What were some of the tenets of mid-twentieth-century feminist sexual liberation?
Access to birth control and safe, legal abortions
The right to say no to sex and the sexual option of lesbianism
Free sexuality and the right to pleasure
A concept that directs us to consider the anti-homosexual beliefs and practices embedded in social institutions is ____________.
Adrienne Rich contributed to the concept of ______ and argued that social institutions and popular culture assume heterosexuality and that heterosexuality maintains women's subordination.
______ is a negative label that sets a person apart from others, links the labeled person to supposedly undesirable characteristics, and then discriminate against the labeled person.
What do pro-sex feminists claim about pornography?
That pornography can have benefits for women; women are sexual agents, subjects and not objects, who make choices and decisions about their bodies and sexualities
Woman are ____% of grade school principals, _____% of middle school principals, and ______% of high school principals.
37%; 23%; 8%
Boys surpass girls in proportion enrolled in high school math and science classes such as geometry, algebra II, biology, and chemistry.
Which university is the first university to integrate by gender in the United States?
How are reading materials in schools gendered?
Male characters are more visible and active and play more important parts.
Which of the following groups have the highest high school dropout rate?
How is American school training connected to capitalism, according to Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis's "correspondence principle"?
Schools prepare the docile, obedient, and motivated workforce that capitalism needs.
What does Barrie Thorne's work on schoolchildren demonstrate about gender?
That gender and its absence are an active accomplishment of social relations among children and between children and teachers
What did Shelley Correll's study (2001) find?
The boys were more likely to perceive themselves as good at math.
Boys may pursue math classes and mathematics related career paths at a higher rate than girls do not because they are better at mathematics but because mathematics are associated with masculinity.
According to the text, all of the Ritalin (a medication used to treat ADHD) prescriptions in the world, 90 percent are written for Americans and boys are three to ten times more likely to be identified with ADHD than are girls.
In their study (2009) about gender bullying among children, Lindsay and her colleagues found that intervention strategies to confront peers' sexist remarks did not work.
What is a significant determinant of the racial gap in high school dropout rates?
Unequal amounts of money spent across school systems from one neighborhood to the next
How do class and race ethnicity intersect with the recent trend of males falling behind in school?
It is lower-income men, especially African American and Hispanic men, who are rapidly dropping out of education.
What did Kardia and Wright (2004)'s study about student evaluations of professors find?
Students hold women teachers to different standards and evaluate them more harshly.
Evaluation scores given to male faculty and those given to female faculty were not much different.
How do self-esteem rates differ by race and gender in the United States?
They decline for all adolescents, but they decline more for girls and most for Latina girls.
According to the text, in vocational education programs, girls are more clustered in vocations that have median hourly wages of about _______ an hour, while boys are likely to be training in skilled trades with median hourly wages of about ______ an hour.
How is water connected to global literacy rates?
In the global South, girls are often responsible for carrying water to their homes, a job that can prevent them from having the time to attend school.
According to Freeman's study (2004), high school boys tend to be more involved in school activities than high school girls.
According to the text, _______ of full professors, _________ percent of associate professors, and _________ of instructors and lecturers are women.
17%; 30%; 50%
What did Title IX do?
It made it illegal for schools that received federal assistance to discriminate against girls and women.
How has the gender composition of college students changed in the last century?
Women are increasingly gaining admission to higher education and completing degrees while men's participation seems to be stagnant.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
SOC 216 exam 1
SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 12
Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality
Sociology, chapter 11 and 12
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Managing Employee's performance
Creating and Maintaining high performance organization
Developing Employees for Future Success
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Sociology Exam 2
Gender exam #1
Sociology of Gender
Sociology of Gender Quiz 1