stimulation of the senses
organizing and interpreting sensory information
study of relationships btw physical characteristics of stimuli and our experience of them
lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect
smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect (aka just noticeable difference)
the stronger the stimulus the greater the change must be in order for it to be noticed
signal detection theory
theory that a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue influnce thresholds
adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
transparent structure behind the pupil; bends and focuses light rays on the retina
the layer of rods and cones that lines the back of the eye
carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
small depression in the retina; mostly cones; clearest vision
where the optic nerve leaves the eye, no rods or cones
number of waves per second
height of a wave
receptors that detect black, white, and gray
shade of color; determined by the wavelength of light
image focused in front of retina; see close objects clearly; distant objects less clear
image focused behind retina; see far objects clearly; close objects less clear
decreased ability to see in reduced light; impaired rod function; deficiency of vitamin A
inability to dintinguish colors; defiency or absence of cones
visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed
process of combining the images received from the two eyes into a single image
depth cue; compare images from the two eyes; brain computes distance; greater the difference btw the two images, the closer the object
nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain
highness or lowness of a tone; frequency
unit of frequency, pitch
measurement of intensity or loudness, amplitude
a snail-shaped tube; inner ear; lined with receptor cells; sound
chamber btw the eardrum and cochlea; hammer, anvil, and stirrup; concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the
innermost part of the ear; cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs; relay sound waves to the auditory nerve fibers
opponent process theory
color vision is derived from three pairs of opposing receptors; blue and yellow, red and green, and black and white.
in hearing, pitch liked with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
frequency matching theory
firing rate of a neuron matches the frequency of a sound wave to determine pitch
three semicircular canals; sense of balance, in the inner ear; connected to the brain by a nerve
carries impulses from olfactory receptors in the nose to the brain
Experience of taste, smell, temperature,texture
system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
organization of visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts
brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
perception does not accurately represent the world
father of psychophysics, built on the work of Weber, refined principles of perception.
pioneered study of Just Noticeable Difference, which became Weber's law. JND is proportional to size of the stimulus.
w/Torsten Wiesel discovered feature detector groups of neurons;in visual cortex, respond to different types of visual images
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