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49 terms

Unit 4 AP Psy Hartland

STUDY
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sensation
stimulation of the senses
perception
organizing and interpreting sensory information
psychophysics
study of relationships btw physical characteristics of stimuli and our experience of them
absolute threshold
lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect
difference threshold
smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect (aka just noticeable difference)
weber's law
the stronger the stimulus the greater the change must be in order for it to be noticed
signal detection theory
theory that a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue influnce thresholds
pupil
adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil; bends and focuses light rays on the retina
retina
the layer of rods and cones that lines the back of the eye
optic nerve
carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
fovea
small depression in the retina; mostly cones; clearest vision
blind spot
where the optic nerve leaves the eye, no rods or cones
frequency
number of waves per second
amplitude
height of a wave
cones
color receptors
rods
receptors that detect black, white, and gray
hue
shade of color; determined by the wavelength of light
nearsightedness
image focused in front of retina; see close objects clearly; distant objects less clear
farsightedness
image focused behind retina; see far objects clearly; close objects less clear
night blindness
decreased ability to see in reduced light; impaired rod function; deficiency of vitamin A
colorblindness
inability to dintinguish colors; defiency or absence of cones
afterimage
visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed
binocular fusion
process of combining the images received from the two eyes into a single image
retinal disparity
depth cue; compare images from the two eyes; brain computes distance; greater the difference btw the two images, the closer the object
auditory nerve
nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain
pitch
highness or lowness of a tone; frequency
hertz
unit of frequency, pitch
decibels
measurement of intensity or loudness, amplitude
cochlea
a snail-shaped tube; inner ear; lined with receptor cells; sound
middle ear
chamber btw the eardrum and cochlea; hammer, anvil, and stirrup; concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the
inner ear
innermost part of the ear; cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs; relay sound waves to the auditory nerve fibers
opponent process theory
color vision is derived from three pairs of opposing receptors; blue and yellow, red and green, and black and white.
place theory
in hearing, pitch liked with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
frequency matching theory
firing rate of a neuron matches the frequency of a sound wave to determine pitch
vestibular system
three semicircular canals; sense of balance, in the inner ear; connected to the brain by a nerve
olfactory nerve
carries impulses from olfactory receptors in the nose to the brain
gustation
taste
flavor
Experience of taste, smell, temperature,texture
kinesthesis
system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
figure ground
organization of visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
visual cliff
laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
gestalt
the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts
subliminal messages
brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
illusions
perception does not accurately represent the world
gustav fechner
father of psychophysics, built on the work of Weber, refined principles of perception.
ernst weber
pioneered study of Just Noticeable Difference, which became Weber's law. JND is proportional to size of the stimulus.
david hubel
w/Torsten Wiesel discovered feature detector groups of neurons;in visual cortex, respond to different types of visual images
inattentional blindness
Failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere