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o Originally created as a pesticide & herbicide
o During Vietnam, the U.S. sprays 77 million liters of it on Vietnam
o Though meant to kill crops & military cover --> SERIOUS effects on humans too
(lasting) effects of Agent Orange
Ultimately, approx. 4.8 million Vietnamese exposed to Agent Orange, resulting in 400,000 deaths, and 500,000 children born with birth defects (number of Americans affected unknown)
• And, the toxic chemical is STILL present in Vietnam today - contaminating the water, food chain, etc...
*My Lai Massacre
o American soldiers massacre innocent women and children
o 350-500 civilians killed (higher than the HW said)
o Shows American wickedness and fuels anti-war movement back home
o Bush declares just 6 weeks after start of Iraq War in 2003
o Makes dramatic entrance on aircraft carrier to give speech
o Clearly premature:
7 years later, war continues
Death tolls since this declaration: 4,200 Americans and 100,000 to 900,000 Iraqis
o Prison in Baghdad for Iraqis
o Media discovers photos of American soldiers torturing prisoners (physical, psychological & sexual abuse - includes rape & homicide)
o Discovered by media in 2004 fuels anti-war movement
(Later estimated that 90% of Iraqi prisoners are innocent) - Don't hafta know this bullet-point for test
New "Manifest Destiny"
o America believed it was its "destiny" to venture into new territory
Looked to the "nonindustrial world," make them industrial
"Experience of subjugating Indian tribes... established a precedent for exerting colonial control over dependent peoples"
Fearful of lack of resources (depression encouraged new business ventures abroad)
Took over Africa and divided it for themselves (also "eyeballing" China)
Used Darwin theories to justify expansion (races = biological species)
Alfred Thayer Mahan = navy capt. + admir. helped launch shipbuilding program that would move U.S. to 5th place among world naval powers in 1870s and 80s, 3rd by 1900
o 1898- Declared in April, over in August
o By time U.S. got there, their intervention was more like cleaning up, much harder for Cuban insurgents
o Americans still had difficulties (food, heavy clothes, malnutrition, disease)
Still, it was a "splendid little war"
• Black soldiers on both sides, helped make it easier
• May 1, 1898- commodore George Dewey destroyed Spanish Fleet in Phillipines, Spanish surrender Manila
• The Battle for Cuba: William R. Shafter attacked Spanish Admiral Pascual Cevera and his fleet right when it seemed hopeless, Spanish surrendered
• Meanwhile, American army occupied Puerto Rico vs. hardly any opposition
• Spain signed armistice giving Cuba independence, then ceding Puerto Rico to U.S., making a deal about the Philippines
Americans exhibited similar imperialist tactics to those of GB and Spain, were aggressors
Virtually unheard of war because it makes America look really bad- killed maybe 50,000 or more
Captured Filipino leader, Aguinido
Any captured guerrillas executed, communities evacuated, people forced into concentration camps, often arbitrarily killed
Not until under William Taft did Filipinos have more autonomy
Document that played of the fear of communism
Leads to big buildup of military budget
U.S. "missile game" US- 17:1 advantage, BUT portray U.S. losing
• Confidential report issued by national Security Council to President Truman
• top secret 58 pg document arguing that the Soviet Union was an overwhelming military power bent on world conquest and that America's only practical response was massive military build up- with a particular focus on nuclear weapons
• portrays US as ideal society, role is to defend democracy worldwide
• Legacy= blueprint for the cold war, build up of military budget
1st Indochina War
o French want to reassert as colonial power post WWII
Vietminh's guerrilla war tactics too good
Lose public support after Dienbienphu
French keep trying to lure Vietnamese into "traditional battle"... whoops
Support from Chinese helps neutralize French air advantage
French totally underestimated Vietnamese
IDENTICAL to America's experience in the Vietnam war (aka the 2nd Indochina War)
- Elected in 1932, until his death in 1945
- 32nd president
- Served for 4 terms
- U.S went from having no military power to being the greatest military power
- Lead U.S during world wide economic crisis and WW2
- launched the new deal a large complex interlocking set of designs to produce relief recovery and reform
-was willing to experiment to change economy
- Dec. 7th 1941
- Unannounced military strike conducted by the imperial japanese navy against the United States naval base in Hawaii
- Resulted the U.S entry into WWII
- After this attack American desire to not be in the war disappeared
- Attack meant to destroy important American fleet units in order to prevent the pacific fleet from inferring with Japanese conquest.
- President Roosevelt called it " a date that will live in infamy"
The Creel Committee/ CPI
-Committee on Public Information
- An independent agency of the U.S governement created to influenced the American public`s opinion regarding the U.S going in WWI
-create propoganda, but practice "self censorship," report disloyalty to government
* The Saint Louis
- A ship carrying a group of 900 Jews who were fleeing Nazi invaded Germany during WWII
- The ship was refused entr at every country it reached including the U.S
- The ship eventually went back to Europe
- Shows that many countries did not want to deal with the "holocaust problem"
* Korean War
- In 1945 Korea split into two different sides; north Korea became communist after soviet troops occupied it and the south was non communist and occupied by the U.S
- The situation escalated into open warfare when north Korea forced invaded south Korea in 1950. This was the first significant armed conflict of the cold war
- The U.S came to the aid of south Korea to help fight communism and China came to the aid of north Korea to help maintain comm.
- After China came in to the war fighting took a more dangerous turn
- The threat of a nuclear world war eventually ceased with an armistice that restored the border between the Koreas
- A conflict fought between two or more nations without a formal declaration of war being issued
-congress has no say in declaring the war (and might not even know)
- It is usually seen as a more "public" friendly way to declare war
- Used this in Vietnam
-has happened approx. 125 times
-Britain bankrupt and couldn't buy machinery
- The name of the program under which the U.S supplied the allies (U.K, France, China) with vast amounts of war materials in WWII
- This act ended the pretense of the neutrality of the U.S
- President Roosevelt started this program
Ho Chi Minh
- Ho Chi Minh led the Vietnamese independence movement from 1941 to 1945 and defeated the french union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
-leader of the Vietcong
Ngo Dinh Diem
- First president of South Vietnam appointed by U.S (anti-communist)
- Once in power Americans realized him did not want to be controlled
- U.S tried to overthrow him many times but failed until 1963
- Diem would arrest those who opposed him; about 1000 people were put in jail because of him
• Catholic, supported by the U.S. but not really by his country because he was a corrupt dictatorial leader
• Persecuted religiously (Buddhist monks)
• Overthrown by in a coup supported by the U.S. gov't
• But the regime that replaced him wasn't good either
*Gulf of Tonkin
- First incident was on August 2nd 1964 a U.S ship was attacked by Vietnamese ships; Viet. ships were destroyed and 6 men died but there were no U.S casualties
- Second incident on August 4 1964 also a naval battle and this granted president LBJ the authority to assist any Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by communist aggression.
* The Tet Offensive
- January 31, 1968
- A military campaign during the Vietnam war
- North Vietnam was fighting south Viet, the U.S and the allies
• Attacked Saigon where US embassy located (lots of deaths)
• Turning point in war Helped North win
• Anti war movement grew
- The purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers through out South Viet. to spark a general uprising that would topple the Saigon government thus ending the war
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